Saint-Siméon (Seine-et-Marne)

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?). Le bandeau {{ébauche}} peut être enlevé et l’article évalué comme étant au stade « Bon début » quand il comporte assez de renseignements encyclopédiques concernant la commune.
Si vous avez un doute, l’atelier de lecture du projet Communes de France est à votre disposition pour vous aider. Consultez également la page d’aide à la rédaction d’un article de commune.

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Île-de-France

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Seine-et-Marne

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Saint-Siméon est une commune française située dans le département de Seine-et-Marne en région Île-de-France.

Ses habitants sont appelés les Saint-Siméonais(es).

Saint-Siméon est situé à 9 km à l’ouest de La Ferté-Gaucher, à 11 km à l’est de Coulommiers et à 55 km au nord-est de Melun.

Le tiers de la population est domicilié dans le chef-lieu de la commune, le reste s’éparpille dans une vingtaine d’écarts dont les plus peuplés sont les hameaux de Charcot, du Grand-mont, de la Montagne (où se trouve la gare et les laiteries, et qui, bientôt, ne devrait faire qu’un avec le chef-lieu, en raison de constructions nouvelles), de la Vanne-Réveillon, de Mondollot, de la Vacherie, des Bordes.

Le village se trouve en bas d’un coteau sur la rive gauche du Grand Morin, pratiquement au confluent du ru de Piétrée.

La principale route qui permet d’y accéder est le chemin de grande communication no 55 de Nanteuil-sur-Marne à Provins.

Le village est desservi par le chemin de fer (compagnie de l’Est, ligne de Gretz à Sézanne).

La commune possède une gare, sur la Ligne de Gretz-Armainvilliers à Sézanne ; mais les derniers trains ont été remplacés par des cars.

Au cours de la Révolution française, la commune porte le nom d‘Union.

En 2013, la commune comptait 892 habitants. L’évolution du nombre d’habitants est connue à travers les recensements de la population effectués dans la commune depuis 1793. À partir du XXIe siècle, les recensements réels des communes de moins de 10 000 habitants ont lieu tous les cinq ans, contrairement aux autres communes qui ont une enquête par sondage chaque année.

Il existe une école à Saint-Siméon, regroupant les classes de maternelle et des CP. L’école fait partie d’un regroupement pédagogique intercommunal, avec celles du village voisin de Saint-Rémy-la-Vanne.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Tonkin Campaign

The Tonkin Campaign was an armed conflict fought between June 1883 and April 1886 by the French against, variously, the Vietnamese, Liu Yongfu’s Black Flag Army and the Chinese Guangxi and Yunnan armies to occupy Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and entrench a French protectorate there. The campaign, complicated in August 1884 by the outbreak of the Sino-French War and in July 1885 by the Cần Vương nationalist uprising in Annam, which required the diversion of large numbers of French troops, was conducted by the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps, supported by the gunboats of the Tonkin Flotilla. The campaign officially ended in April 1886, when the expeditionary corps was reduced in size to a division of occupation, but Tonkin was not effectively pacified until 1896.

Nine years after Francis Garnier’s failed attempt to conquer Tonkin, French and Vietnamese troops clashed in Tonkin on 25 April 1882, when Commandant Henri Rivière seized the citadel of Hanoi with a small force of marine infantry.

After a lull of several months, the arrival of reinforcements from France in February 1883 allowed Rivière to mount a campaign to capture the citadel of Nam Định (27 March 1883). The Capture of Nam Định was strategically necessary for the French, to secure their communications with the sea.

During Rivière’s absence at Nam Định with the bulk of his forces, chef de bataillon Berthe de Villers defeated a Vietnamese attack on the French positions at Hanoi by Prince Hoàng Kế Viêm at the Battle of Gia Cuc (27 and 28 March 1883).

Although these early actions deserve to be considered part of the Tonkin campaign, the campaign is conventionally considered to have begun in June 1883, in the wake of the decision by the French government to despatch reinforcements to Tonkin to avenge Rivière’s defeat and death at the hands of Liu Yongfu’s Black Flag Army at the Battle of Paper Bridge on 19 May 1883. These reinforcements were organised into a Tonkin Expeditionary Corps, which was placed under the command of général de brigade Alexandre-Eugène Bouët (1833–87), the highest-ranking marine infantry officer available in the French colony of Cochinchina.

The French position in Tonkin on Bouët’s arrival in early June 1883 was extremely precarious. The French had only small garrisons in Hanoi, Haiphong and Nam Định, isolated posts at Hon Gai and at Qui Nhơn in Annam, and little immediate prospect of taking the offensive against Liu Yongfu’s Black Flags and Prince Hoàng Kế Viêm’s Vietnamese. Bouët’s first step was to withdraw the isolated French garrisons of Qui Nhơn and Hon Gai. He had also been authorised to abandon Nam Định at need, but he decided to try to defend all three major French posts. During June, the French dug in behind their defences and beat off half-hearted Vietnamese demonstrations against Hanoi and Nam Định.

The early arrival of reinforcements from France and New Caledonia and the recruitment of Cochinchinese and Tonkinese auxiliary formations allowed Bouët to hit back at his tormentors. On 19 July chef de bataillon Pierre de Badens, the French commandant supérieur at Nam Định, attacked and defeated Prince Hoàng Kế Viêm’s besieging Vietnamese army, effectively relieving Vietnamese pressure on Nam Định.

The arrival of Admiral Amédée Courbet in Along Bay in July 1883 with substantial naval reinforcements further strengthened the French position in Tonkin. Although the French were now in a position to consider taking the offensive against Liu Yongfu, they realised that military action against the Black Flag Army had to be accompanied by a political settlement with the Vietnamese court at Huế, if necessary by coercion, that recognised a French protectorate in Tonkin.

On 30 July 1883 Admiral Courbet, General Bouët and François-Jules Harmand, the recently appointed French civil commissioner-general for Tonkin, held a council of war at Haiphong. The three men agreed that Bouët should launch an offensive against the Black Flag Army in its positions around Phu Hoai on the Day River as soon as possible. They also noted that the Court of Huế was covertly aiding and abetting Liu Yongfu’s Black Flag Army, and that Prince Hoàng was still in arms against the French at Nam Định. They therefore decided, largely on Harmand’s urging, to recommend to the French government a strike against the Vietnamese defences of Huế, followed by an ultimatum requiring the Vietnamese to accept a French protectorate over Tonkin or face immediate attack.

The proposal was approved by the navy ministry on 11 August, and on 18 August several warships of Courbet’s Tonkin Coasts naval division bombarded the Thuận An forts at the entrance to the Huế River. On 20 August, in the Battle of Thuận An, two companies of French marine infantry and the landing companies of three French warships went ashore and stormed the forts under heavy fire. During the afternoon the gunboats Lynx and Vipère forced a barrage at the entrance to the River of Perfumes, enabling the French to attack Huế directly if they chose.

The Vietnamese asked for an armistice, and on 25 August Harmand dictated the Treaty of Huế to the cowed Vietnamese court. The Vietnamese recognised the legitimacy of the French occupation of Cochinchina, accepted a French protectorate both for Annam and Tonkin and promised to withdraw their troops from Tonkin. Vietnam, its royal house and its court survived, but under French direction. France was granted the privilege of stationing a resident-general at Huế, who would work to the civil commissioner-general in Tonkin and could require a personal audience with the Vietnamese emperor. To ensure there were no second thoughts, a permanent French garrison would occupy the Thuận An forts. Large swathes of territory were also transferred from Annam to Tonkin and the French colony of Cochinchina. The French cancelled the country’s debts, but required in return the cession of the southern province of Bình Thuận, which was annexed to Cochinchina. At the same time the northern provinces of Nghệ An, Thanh Hóa and Hà Tĩnh were transferred to Tonkin, where they would come under direct French oversight. In return the French undertook to drive out the Black Flags from Tonkin and to guarantee freedom of commerce on the Red River.

Meanwhile, as agreed at the Haiphong conference, General Bouët duly took the offensive against Liu Yongfu’s Black Flag Army. Bouët twice attacked the Black Flags in their defences along the Day River, in the Battle of Phủ Hoài (15 August 1883) and the Battle of Palan (1 September 1883). These offensives met with only limited success, and in the eyes of the world were tantamount to French defeats.

More encouragingly for the French, a column of marine infantry and Cochinchinese riflemen under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Brionval stormed the Vietnamese defences of Hải Dương on 13 August. The capture of Haiduong was notable for atrocities committed by both the French and the Vietnamese. The French discovered, hung up by hooks from the city walls, the mutilated bodies of several missing French and Vietnamese soldiers of the expeditionary corps. The dead soldiers had clearly been tortured to death, and the French took their revenge by bayoneting the Vietnamese wounded. The capture of Hải Dương secured the French line of communication by river between Hanoi and Haiphong. The French occupied the citadel of Hải Dương and also established a post a few kilometres to the north of the town, at Elephant Mountain.

In November 1883 the French further strengthened their grip on the Delta by occupying the towns of Ninh Bình, Hưng Yên and Quảng Yên. The allegiance of Ninh Bình was of particular importance to the French, as artillery mounted in its lofty citadel controlled river traffic to the Gulf of Tonkin. Although the Vietnamese governor of Ninh Bình had made no attempt to hinder the passage of the expedition launched by Henri Rivière in March 1883 to capture Nam Định, he was known to be hostile towards the French. Accordingly, Lieutenant-Colonel Pierre de Badens (1847–97) was sent to occupy Ninh Bình with a company of marine infantry, supported by the gunboats Léopard and Pluvier. Cowed by the silent menace of the gunboats, the Vietnamese handed over the citadel of Ninh Bình without resistance, and the French installed a garrison there.

The Treaty of Huế remained a dead letter in Tonkin. Vietnamese mandarins sent to Tonkin to support French administration there were sullen and uncooperative, and Prince Hoang declined to withdraw Vietnamese forces from Tonkin. Meanwhile, the Black Flags, with Prince Hoang’s active encouragement, stepped up their attacks on French posts during the autumn of 1883. The small French garrisons in Palan and Batang were harassed, and on 17 November the French post at Hải Dương was attacked and nearly overwhelmed by a force of 2,000 Vietnamese insurgents. Only the timely arrival of the gunboat Lynx enabled the defenders to hold their positions.

In December 1883 the French took their revenge. Admiral Amédée Courbet, who had replaced Bouët in command of the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps two months earlier, assembled a column of 9,000 men and marched on Sơn Tây for a showdown with Liu Yongfu’s Black Flag Army. The decision was of considerable political significance, as an attack on Sơn Tây would bring the French into direct conflict with Chinese troops for the first time in the campaign. China, the traditional overlord of Vietnam, had for months been covertly supporting the Black Flags, and had stationed Chinese troops in Sơn Tây, Lạng Sơn, Bắc Ninh and other Tonkinese towns to limit French freedom of movement. The French government appreciated that an attack on Sơn Tây would probably result in an undeclared war with China, but calculated that a quick victory in Tonkin would force the Chinese to accept a fait accompli. On 10 December 1883, after the failure of diplomatic efforts to persuade the Chinese to withdraw their troops, the French government authorised Courbet to attack Sơn Tây.

The Sơn Tây Campaign was the fiercest campaign the French had yet fought in Tonkin. Although the Chinese and Vietnamese contingents at Sơn Tây played little part in the defence, Liu Yongfu’s Black Flags fought ferociously to hold the city. On 14 December the French assaulted the outer defences of Sơn Tây at Phu Sa, but were thrown back with heavy casualties. Hoping to exploit Courbet’s defeat, Liu Yongfu attacked the French lines the same night, but the Black Flag attack also failed disastrously. After resting his troops on 15 December, Courbet again assaulted the defences of Sơn Tây on the afternoon of 16 December. This time the attack was thoroughly prepared by artillery, and delivered only after the defenders had been worn down. At 5 p.m. a Foreign Legion battalion and a battalion of marines captured the western gate of Sơn Tây and fought their way into the town. Liu Yongfu’s garrison withdrew to the citadel, and evacuated Sơn Tây under cover of darkness several hours later. Courbet had achieved his objective, but at considerable cost. French casualties at Sontay were 83 dead and 320 wounded. The fighting at Sơn Tây also took a terrible toll of the Black Flags, and in the opinion of some observers broke them once and for all as a serious fighting force.

On 16 December 1883, the very day on which he captured Sơn Tây, Admiral Courbet was replaced in command of the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps by général de division Charles-Théodore Millot, as a result of the despatch of strong reinforcements to Tonkin in November 1883 and the consequent expansion of the expeditionary corps into a two-brigade army division. Although the capture of Sơn Tây paved the way for the eventual French conquest of Tonkin, the French now had to deal with opposition from China as well as the Black Flag Army. Having exhausted diplomatic efforts to persuade the Chinese to withdraw their armies from Tonkin, the French government sanctioned an attack by Millot on the fortress of Bắc Ninh, occupied since the autumn of 1882 by China’s Guangxi Army. In March 1884, in the Bắc Ninh Campaign, Millot routed the Guangxi Army and captured Bắc Ninh. Millot put just over 11,000 French, Algerian and Vietnamese soldiers into the field at Bắc Ninh, the largest concentration of French troops ever assembled in the Tonkin campaign.

Millot followed up his victory by mopping up scattered Chinese garrisons left behind by the Guangxi Army after the rout at Bắc Ninh and by mounting a major campaign against Liu Yongfu’s Black Flag Army, which had retreated to Hưng Hóa. On 11 April 1884 Millot captured Hưng Hóa and Dong Yan, flanking the Black Flag Army and its Vietnamese allies out of a formidable defensive position without losing a man.

The Black Flag Army retreated westwards up the Red River to Thanh Quan, while Prince Hoang Ke Viem’s Vietnamese forces fell back southwards from Dong Yan towards the Annam-Tonkin border, making for the sanctuary of the province of Thanh Hóa, where the French had not yet installed any garrisons. Millot despatched Lieutenant-Colonel Letellier with two Turco battalions and supporting cavalry to harry Liu Yongfu’s retreat, and sent General Brière de l’Isle with the rest of the 1st Brigade in pursuit of Prince Hoang. In early May Brière de l’Isle cornered Prince Hoang in Phu Ngo, several kilometres to the northwest of Ninh Bình, but the French government forbade him to attack the Vietnamese defences, having just received news that China was ready to treat with France over the future of Tonkin.

Elsewhere, though, the French kept up the pressure. On 11 May chef de bataillon Reygasse attacked the Chinese garrison of Thái Nguyên and drove it out. In the same week the landing companies of Admiral Courbet’s Tonkin Coasts naval division exterminated nests of Vietnamese pirates along the coast of the Gulf of Tonkin around Dam Ha and Ha Coi.

On 11 May 1884, the same day as French and Chinese forces clashed at Thái Nguyên, France and China concluded the Tientsin Accord. This treaty provided for the immediate evacuation of Tonkin by the Chinese armies, and the implicit recognition by China of the French protectorate over Tonkin (the Chinese agreed to recognise all treaties concluded between France and Annam, including the 1883 Treaty of Huế which formalised the French protectorate in Tonkin).

The conclusion of the Tientsin Accord allowed the French to consolidate their hold on the Delta in May and June 1884. By the end of June the French had established forward bases at Hưng Hóa, Tuyên Quang, Phu Lang Thuong and Thái Nguyên. These posts, together with the bases established further to the east at Hải Dương and Quảng Yên the previous autumn, formed a cordon that enclosed most of the Delta. Behind this chain of frontline posts the French were strongly entrenched in Sơn Tây, Hanoi, Nam Định, Ninh Bình, Bắc Ninh and Sept Pagodes. It only remained for them to occupy Lạng Sơn and the other fortresses of northern Tonkin once they were evacuated by the Chinese under the terms of the Tientsin Accord.

In theory, the Tientsin Accord should have resolved the confrontation between France and China in Tonkin, but a clash between French and Chinese troops at Bac Le on 23 June 1884 plunged both countries into a fresh crisis. China’s refusal to pay an indemnity for the Bắc Lệ ambush led two months later to the outbreak of the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).

The outbreak of the Sino-French War in August 1884 complicated and considerably retarded the French timetable for the conquest of Tonkin, and initially placed the French on the defensive against an invasion of the Delta by the Chinese armies. In September 1884 General Millot resigned as general-in-chief of the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps and was replaced by his senior brigade commander, Louis Brière de l’Isle. Revealingly, Millot’s final order of the day to the soldiers of the expeditionary corps contained a warning against growing French arrogance. By now there were more than 20,000 French soldiers serving in Tonkin, and many of them were beginning to treat the local population with contempt. Tonkinese villagers, for example, were expected to kowtow if a French column passed by. Millot saw that this attitude was stirring up trouble for the future, and issued a prescient warning:

Je n’ai plus qu’un conseil à vous donner : soyez pour mon successeur, le général Brière de l’Isle, ce que vous avez été pour moi, et n’oubliez pas surtout que votre présence dans le pays sera d’autant plus facilement acceptée que vous perdrez moins de vue les tendances et les aspirations des laborieuses populations qui l’habitent.

(I have only one word of advice to give you. Be to my successor, General Brière de l’Isle, what you have been to me. Above all, never forget that your presence in this country will be all the more easily accepted the more you bear in mind the customs and aspirations of the hard-working peoples that inhabit it.)

Brière de l’Isle was a natural leader of men, and under his command the expeditionary corps achieved a high standard of professional excellence. One of his first acts as general-in-chief, in September 1884, was to seal off Tonkin from Annam by ejecting Vietnamese bandit concentrations from the border towns of My Luong, Ke Son and Phu Ngo and establishing French posts there. This stroke secured the French rear and allowed the expeditionary corps to concentrate substantial forces against the expected Chinese invasion.

In October 1884 General François de Négrier defeated a major Chinese invasion of the Tonkin Delta in the Kép Campaign. This campaign brought French troops into the hitherto-unexplored Luc Nam valley, and at the close of the campaign the French occupied the villages of Chu and Kép, which were converted into forward bases for an eventual campaign against Lạng Sơn. In the western Delta, where their advanced post of Tuyên Quang lay under growing threat from the advancing Yunnan Army, the French widened their area of occupation in the autumn of 1884 by establishing posts at Phu Doan and Vie Tri on the Clear River.

In February 1885 Brière de l’Isle defeated China’s Guangxi Army in the Lạng Sơn Campaign. The French occupation of Dong Song on 6 February threatened the line of retreat of the Guangxi Army’s right wing, and forced the Chinese to withdraw from their positions in the Song Thuong valley to the west of Lạng Sơn. The occupation of Lạng Sơn on 13 February gave the French control of the Mandarin Road from Lạng Sơn all the way back to Hanoi, and Brière de l’Isle was able to use the road to bring prompt relief to the hard-pressed French garrison of Tuyên Quang. During the second fortnight of February Colonel Laurent Giovanninelli’s 1st Brigade marched down the Mandarin Road to Hanoi and was then ferried up the Red and Clear Rivers to Phu Doan aboard a flotilla of gunboats. On 2 March 1885 Giovanninelli defeated Liu Yongfu’s Black Flags in the Battle of Hòa Mộc, relieving the Siege of Tuyên Quang.

In March 1885 the French established posts at Cau Son and Thanh Moy, previously occupied by the Guangxi Army, and began to widen the Mandarin Road so that it could be used by wagon trains to supply de Négrier’s 2nd Brigade at Lạng Sơn. Further to the east, French troops extended the zone of French control along the Gulf of Tonkin, establishing a post at Tien Yen.

In the west, Giovanninelli’s victory at Hòa Mộc on 2 March allowed the French to consider an offensive from their main base at Hưng Hóa against the Yunnan and Black Flag Armies. Brière de l’Isle drew up plans for an advance up the Red River by Giovanninelli’s brigade against the Yunnan Army’s positions around Thanh Quan, but simultaneous reverses on both the eastern and western fronts on 24 March (the Battle of Bang Bo (Zhennan Pass) and the Battle of Phu Lam Tao) and the subsequent Retreat from Lạng Sơn on 28 March threw out his plans for an early penetration of the upper course of the Red River.

The Sino-French War ended with the Chinese military pushed out of Tonkin, and the resulting peace treaty between France and China, signed at Tientsin on 9 June 1885, forced China to abandon its historic claim to suzerainty over Vietnam and confirmed the French protectorate over both Annam and Tonkin. In theory, the way was now clear for the French to consolidate their claim to Tonkin. In practice, this was not so easy as it might have seemed. As a British statesman remarked at the time: ‚France has won her claim to Tonkin; now all she has to do is conquer it.‘

Strong reinforcements were sent to Tonkin in the wake of the Retreat from Lạng Sơn (March 1885), bringing the total number of French soldiers in Tonkin to 35,000 in the summer of 1885. In May and June 1885 thousands of fresh French troops poured into Tonkin, swamping the veterans of the two brigades that had fought the Sino-French War, and the expeditionary corps was reorganised into two two-brigade divisions. Brière de l’Isle was replaced in command of the expeditionary corps on 1 June 1885 by General Philippe-Marie-Henri Roussel de Courcy (1827–1887), but remained in Tonkin for several months as commander of the 1st Division of the expanded expeditionary corps. General François de Négrier, who had recovered from the wound he sustained at the Battle of Ky Lua (28 March 1885), was given command of the 2nd Division.

De Courcy’s command was marked by growing resistance to French rule in Tonkin and by outright insurrection in Annam. It was also memorable for a cholera epidemic which swept through the expeditionary corps in the summer and autumn of 1885, exacerbated by de Courcy’s neglect of quarantine precautions, in which more French soldiers died than in the entire nine months of the Sino-French War. Elements of the Tonkin expeditionary corps were attacked at Huế on 2 July 1885 in the so-called ‚Huế Ambush‘, which initiated the Vietnamese insurrection. Forbidden by the French government to launch a full-scale invasion of Annam, de Courcy landed troops along the vulnerable coastline of central Vietnam to seize a number of strategic points and to protect Vietnamese Catholic communities in the wake of massacres of Christians by the Vietnamese insurgents at Quảng Ngãi and Bình Định.

Meanwhile, Tonkin was in a state of near-anarchy. The Chinese armies that had fought the Sino-French War dutifully withdrew from Tonkin in May and June 1885, but their ranks were by then full of Vietnamese volunteers or conscripts, and these men, unpaid for months, were simply disbanded on Tonkinese soil and left to fend for themselves. They kept their weapons and supported themselves by brigandage, in many cases sheltering behind the patriotic rhetoric of the Cần Vương insurgency against the French. For most of the summer of 1885, when European troops normally kept to their barracks anyway, French control of Tonkin was limited to a small radius around the perimeter of their military posts.

No attempt was made by de Courcy to move forward to reoccupy Lạng Sơn, evacuated by the Chinese in May, nor to secure the forts built by the Yunnan Army along the Red River to protect its supply line during the Siege of Tuyên Quang. Bands of brigands took over these forts as soon as the Chinese evacuated them. The bandits struck far and wide beyond the limits of French control. Wherever they could, Tonkinese villagers left their homes and took shelter beneath the walls of the French forts.

Only one important French sweep was made during the summer of 1885 in Tonkin, and its effects were transitory. In July 1885 a mixed column of Algerian and Tonkinese riflemen under the command of Colonel Mourlan drove a band of insurgents from the Tam Dao massif and established a French post at Lien Son. The insurgents fled without accepting battle and regrouped in Thái Nguyên province.

The blundering response of de Courcy and his staff officers to the twin challenges in Annam and Tonkin has been memorably characterised in a recent French study of the period:

Comme dans un drame shakespearien, des grotesques s’agitent sur le devant de la scène pendant que la tragédie se poursuit dans le sang, sur toute l’étendue du Tonkin ravagé et de l’Annam qui bascule dans la guerre au cours de l’été.

(As in a Shakesperian drama, clowns gambolled at the front of the stage while the tragedy was played out in blood, not only across ravaged Tonkin but in Annam too, which during the summer slid into war.)

De Courcy bestirred himself with the arrival of the autumn campaigning season. The main French effort was made in the west, along the Red River. The Tonkin expeditionary corps undertook a large-scale campaign in October 1885 to capture the Yunnan Army’s old base at Thanh May, which had been occupied by Vietnamese insurgents some months earlier. De Courcy concentrated 7,000 troops for the attack on Thanh May, almost as many men as Brière de l’Isle had commanded during the Lạng Sơn Campaign in February 1885. An elaborate encircling movement was mishandled, and though the French duly occupied Thanh May, avenging their defeat in the Battle of Phu Lam Tao seven months earlier, most of the brigands escaped the closing pincers and regrouped further up the Red River around Thanh Quan.

In the first week of February 1886 two columns commanded by General Jamais and Lieutenant-Colonel de Maussion, under the overall direction of General Jamont, advanced up both banks of the Red River as far as Thanh Quan. The bands that had been driven from Thanh May did not stay to fight, but melted into the forests before the French advance. On 17 February the French occupied Van Ban Chau. After a pause of several weeks while the French government notified the Chinese that French troops would shortly be closing up to the Chinese frontier, de Maussion was authorised to advance to the Tonkin–Yunnan border. The French occupied Lào Cai on 29 March, and went on to establish a chain of military posts along the Red River between Lào Cai and Thanh Quan. De Maussion was appointed commandant supérieur of the Haute Fleuve Rouge region.

The French also raised their flags along the Tonkin-Guangxi border. The terms of the June 1885 peace treaty between France and China required both parties to demarcate the border between China and Tonkin. As it would have been embarrassing for the French to admit that this could not be done because the Lạng Sơn region had been overrun by brigands since the departure of the Guangxi Army in May 1885, de Courcy was forced to send an expedition to regain control of the border region. In November 1885 chef de bataillon Servière led a column north from Chu to reoccupy Lạng Sơn and Đồng Đăng. He went on install French posts at That Ke and Cao Bằng. This acte de présence established the conditions necessary for an orderly demarcation of the Sino-Vietnamese border in 1887, in which a few minor revisions were made in China’s favour.

Although the tricolour now flew above French customs posts along the Chinese border, there remained widespread unrest inside Tonkin itself. Significantly, General François de Négrier was forced to make a major sweep of the Bai Sai region near Hanoi in December 1885, an operation in which hundreds of French troops died of cholera and other diseases.

In April 1886 General Warnet, who had replaced de Courcy as commander of the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps a few months earlier, declared that he considered Tonkin to be pacified, and proposed to the French government that the expeditionary corps should be reduced in size to a division of occupation. Conventionally, April 1886 marks the end of the Tonkin campaign. The belief that Tonkin was pacified, however, was ludicrously premature. The Pacification of Tonkin, sometimes involving fighting on a large scale, would require a further ten years.

The Tonkin campaign was commemorated in France with the issue of a Tonkin Expedition commemorative medal. French soldiers who had taken part in the campaign had hoped that the medal would be inscribed with the names of all their Tonkin victories, but there were some puzzling absences, notably the Lạng Sơn Campaign, from the feats of arms commemorated. This decision angered many veterans, who felt that it did not adequately recognise their deeds.

The veterans were further offended by the arrangements made for the Bastille Day parade of 14 July 1886, an imposing annual march through the streets of Paris by the men of France’s armed and disciplined services. A special effort was made on this occasion to honour the men who had fought the war with China. Contingents from the battalions and batteries that had served in Tonkin and Formosa marched in the parade, wearing battlefield uniforms instead of full dress. Other arrangements, however, were not so welcome. Although Lieutenant-Colonel Marc-Edmond Dominé, the hero of the Siege of Tuyên Quang, rode in the procession, General Louis Brière de l’Isle and General François de Négrier did not. Both men were heroes to the soldiers of the expeditionary corps, and the veterans greatly resented their absence from the parade. Instead, the man who rode at the head of the march past was the controversial and ambitious new army minister General Georges Boulanger, who only three years later would be suspected of plotting a coup against the Third Republic. Boulanger had not served in Tonkin, but he was determined to take any credit going for its conquest.

François-Jules Harmand (1845–1921)

General Alexandre-Eugène Bouët (1833–87)

Admiral Anatole-Amédée-Prosper Courbet (1827–85)

General Charles-Théodore Millot (1829–89)

General Louis Brière de l’Isle (1827–96)

General François de Négrier (1842–1913)

Colonel Ange-Laurent Giovanninelli (1839–1903)

General Philippe-Marie-Henri Roussel de Courcy (1827–1887)

Vizing’s conjecture

In graph theory, Vizing’s conjecture concerns a relation between the domination number and the cartesian product of graphs. This conjecture was first stated by Vadim G. Vizing (1968), and states that, if γ(G) denotes the minimum number of vertices in a dominating set for G, then

Gravier & Khelladi (1995) conjectured a similar bound for the domination number of the tensor product of graphs; however, a counterexample was found by Klavžar & Zmazek (1996). Since Vizing proposed his conjecture, many mathematicians have worked on it, with partial results described below. For a more detailed overview of these results, see Imrich & Klavžar (2000).

A 4-cycle C4 has domination number two: any single vertex only dominates itself and its two neighbors, but any pair of vertices dominates the whole graph. The product






C



4











C



4






{\displaystyle C_{4}\,\Box \,C_{4}}


is a four-dimensional hypercube graph; it has 16 vertices, and any single vertex can only dominate itself and four neighbors, so three vertices could only dominate 15 of the 16 vertices. Therefore, at least four vertices are required to dominate the entire graph, the bound given by Vizing’s conjecture.

It is possible for the domination number of a product to be much larger than the bound given by Vizing’s conjecture. For instance, for a star K1,n, its domination number γ(K1,n) is one: it is possible to dominate the entire star with a single vertex at its hub. Therefore, for the graph





G


=



K



1


,


n











K



1


,


n






{\displaystyle G=K_{1,n}\,\Box \,K_{1,n}}


formed as the product of two stars, Vizing’s conjecture states only that the domination number should be at least 1 × 1 = 1. However, the domination number of this graph is actually much higher. It has n2 + 2n + 1 vertices: n2 formed from the product of a leaf in both factors, 2n from the product of a leaf in one factor and the hub in the other factor, and one remaining vertex formed from the product of the two hubs. Each leaf-hub product vertex in G dominates exactly n of the leaf-leaf vertices, so n leaf-hub vertices are needed to dominate all of the leaf-leaf vertices. However, no leaf-hub vertex dominates any other such vertex, so even after n leaf-hub vertices are chosen to be included in the dominating set, there remain n more undominated leaf-hub vertices, which can be dominated by the single hub-hub vertex. Thus, the domination number of this graph is





γ



(



K



1


,


n











K



1


,


n




)


=


n


+


1




{\displaystyle \gamma (K_{1,n}\,\Box \,K_{1,n})=n+1}


far higher than the trivial bound of one given by Vizing’s conjecture.

There exist infinite families of graph products for which the bound of Vizing’s conjecture is exactly met. For instance, if G and H are both connected graphs, each having at least four vertices and having exactly twice as many total vertices as their domination numbers, then





γ



(


G








H


)


=


γ



(


G


)


γ



(


H


)




{\displaystyle \gamma (G\,\Box \,H)=\gamma (G)\gamma (H)}


. The graphs G and H with this property consist of the four-vertex cycle C4 together with the rooted products of a connected graph and a single edge.

Clearly, the conjecture holds when either G or H has domination number one: for, the product contains an isomorphic copy of the other factor, dominating which requires at least γ(G)γ(H) vertices.

Vizing’s conjecture is also known to hold for cycles and for graphs with domination number two.

Clark & Suen (2000) proved that the domination number of the product is at least half as large as the conjectured bound, for all G and H.

Vizing (1968) observed that

A dominating set meeting this bound may be formed as the cartesian product of a dominating set in one of G or H with the set of all vertices in the other graph.

Morwell Advertiser

The Morwell Advertiser was a weekly newspaper published from 1886 until 1972 in Morwell, Victoria, Australia. It was initially published on Saturdays, however it changed to Fridays from 1890 until the 1930s when it changed to Thursdays.

The paper started as the Morwell Advocate & Boolara & Mirboo Chronicle and then became the Morwell Advertiser & Weekly Chronicle from 1887 to 1888. In 1888 it became the Morwell Advertiser. It continued as the Morwell Advertiser until 1967 when it briefly became the Latrobe Valley Advocate before reverting to Morwell Advertiser in 1969.

The first issue of the Morwell Advocate & Boolara & Mirboo Chronicle, published Saturday 30 October 1886, outlined the purpose of the paper on the front page which stated

George Watson (1874–1942) was the editor and proprietor of the Morwell Advertiser from 1894 until his death in 1942. He was only 20 years old when he purchased the paper and was at the time the youngest newspaper publisher in Victoria. Watson was a prominent figure in Morwell, being involved in practically every public activity including starting the initial tennis club, president of Gippsland Bowling Association for 15 years, Past Master of the Morwell Masonic and Marc Lodges, and a Justice of the Peace amongst other activities. He was also one of the founders of the Victorian Provincial Press Association in 1910.

In 1916 George Watson purchased the Morwell & Yinnar Gazette newspaper and it became incorporated with the Morwell Advertiser.

The paper was briefly sold to H. T. Hipwell, who also owned the Gippslander in Mirboo Shire, in 1927. However, it was sold back to George Watson in 1928.

In 1967 the Morwell Advertiser and the Moe Advocate merged to form the Latrobe Valley Advocate & Advertiser. However, in 1968 the Elliott Newspaper Group bought the Latrobe Valley Advocate & Advertiser and reinstated them as separate bi-weekly papers from 3 March 1969.

Meanwhile, during the 1960s a free regional newspaper was established in the Latrobe Valley called the Latrobe Valley Express. Its first issue was published on 18 June 1965 and the first regular issue was published on 14 July. By the late 1960s the Latrobe Valley Express had „severely dented the business of the paid newspapers in the region. They could not compete in circulation or penetration.“ The Elliott Newspaper Group therefore had to decide how to respond to this challenge. It was suggested that they should start an opposition free paper, however they decided instead to buy out the Latrobe Valley Express. The Elliott Group was the majority partner with K. S. Hopkins and Sons Pty Ltd, who published the Warragul Gazette. The deal became official on 9 February 1970.

However, as neither the Latrobe Valley Express nor the paid papers owned by the Elliott Newspaper Group (Moe Advocate, Morwell Advertiser and Traralgon Journal) were doing well it was decided to shut down the Moe Advocate and the Morwell Advertiser. The Morwell Advertiser ceased on 27 April 1972.

Улица Алексея Дикого

Россия

Москва

ВАО

Новогиреево

Новогиреево

Интернациональный проспект

111396

+7(495)301-хх-хх, 302-хх-хх

Координаты:    

У́лица Алексе́я Ди́кого (до 1965 — Интернациона́льный проспе́кт) — улица в Восточном административном округе города Москвы на территории района Новогиреево. Расположена параллельно Союзному проспекту, начинаясь от Мартеновской улицы, далее пересекает Седьмой проспект, Шестой проспект, Пятый проспект, Свободный проспект, Третий проспект и заканчивается примыканием ко Второму проспекту. Нумерация домов начинается от Мартеновской улицы.

Названа 3 мая 1965 года в честь Алексея Денисовича Дикого (1889—1955), народного артиста СССР, долгое время жившего на этой улице. Первоначальное название — Интернациональный проспект, было дано в 1920-х годах века в период застройки территории района Перово Поле. Сохранился деревянный одноэтажный дом актёра, в настоящее время окружённый панельными многоэтажными домами.

По чётной стороне:

Зелёный проспект • Свободный проспект

Алексея Дикого Братская • 2-я Владимирская • Коренная • 2-я / Кусковская • Мартеновская • Металлургов • Напольный проезд • Новогиреевская • Новотетёрки • Перовская • Полимерная • Сапёрный проезд • Союзный проспект • Федеративный проспект • Фрязевская • Утренняя

Улицы по районам ВАО: Богородское | Вешняки | Восточное Измайлово | Восточный | Гольяново | Ивановское | Измайлово | Косино-Ухтомский | Метрогородок | Новогиреево | Новокосино | Перово | Преображенское | Северное Измайлово | Соколиная Гора | Сокольники

Gasthaus zum Raben (Memmingen)

Das Gasthaus zum Raben war ein Baudenkmal im oberschwäbischen Memmingen. Das bereits 1432 erwähnte Haus wurde am 23. Januar 2013 durch einen Großbrand komplett zerstört.

Das Haus mit der Adresse Schrannenplatz 4 stand im südlichen Teil der Memminger Altstadt an der Südseite des Schrannenplatzes.

Das Haus wurde erstmals 1432 erwähnt. Es wird angenommen, dass bereits die damaligen Besitzer, die Familie Stetter, dort Gäste bewirteten. Es hieß damals Zum schwarzen Rappen, im Laufe der Zeit entwickelte sich daraus der heutige Name Raben. Im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert wurde das Haus neu erbaut. Um 1800 wurde die Fassade im klassizistischen Stil umgestaltet. Das Nasenschild stammt aus derselben Zeit. Von 1804 bis 1876 wurde die Gaststätte, die auch ein Brauereirecht innehatte, von der Familie Mühlschlegel geführt. Johannes Oexle erhielt 1876 eine Gewerbekonzession und betrieb das Gasthaus bis zum Verkauf an die Schiffsbrauerei Memmingen im Jahre 1918. Im Erdgeschoss befanden sich die Ställe für die Pferde, in den oberen Geschosse waren die Wirtsstube und Gästezimmer untergebracht. Nach 1945 wurde das Haus aufgrund der vielen Flüchtlinge aus den ehemaligen Ostgebieten als Notunterkunft verwandt und in der Folge mehrmals umgebaut. Im Erdgeschoss wurde ein Ladengeschäft mit einer Gaststätte eingerichtet, im ersten Obergeschoss blieb die Gaststube erhalten. Die oberen Geschosse wurden als Wohnraum und für eine Abluftanlage eines ehemaligen Waschsalons im Erdgeschoss genutzt. Die neu eingerichtete Schankstube im Erdgeschoss bekam den Namen Zum Rabennest. Nachdem die Fassade vorbildlich saniert worden war, erhielt das Haus 1975 den Fassadenpreis der Stadt Memmingen. Durch eine Stiftung der Geschwister Rittmayer, den Inhabern der Schiffsbrauerei kam das Haus in den Besitz der Rittmayer-Stiftung, die es 2009 an eine Privatperson verkaufte. In der Folge wurde der Schankraum im Erdgeschoss erneuert und das Äußere saniert. Die Fensteröffnungen wurden nach alten Plänen wieder auf Bodenniveau geöffnet. In den beiden östlichen Jochen befand sich zuletzt ein Mobilfunkgeschäft. Vor und neben dem Haus gab es eine Außenbestuhlung. Die Schankstube im Erdgeschoss erhielt nach den Umbauten den Namen Rohrbecks, der Schankraum im ersten Stock wurde Podium genannt.

Am 23. Januar 2013 entstand ein Brand in einer Mietwohnung im zweiten Stock, durch den drei Personen leicht verletzt wurden. Durch die Fehlböden und die fehlende Feuerschutzwand griff der Brand auf das Nachbarhaus Rabengasse 1 über. Das folgende Haus, das ebenfalls die Hausnummer 1 in der Rabengasse trägt, wurde durch Löschwasser so stark beschädigt, dass die Bewohner von der Stadt kurzfristig neue Wohnungen zugeteilt bekamen. Erst am Folgetag konnte der Brand von den insgesamt über 130 Einsatzkräften vollends gelöscht werden. Hierfür wurde auf etwa vier Metern die Westseite des Hauses aufgebrochen, um die verbliebenen Glutnester zu erreichen. Aufgrund von Sicherheitsrisiken wurde gegen 16.30 Uhr beschlossen, die Fassade einzureißen. Der aktuelle Eigentümer sagte zu, das Haus in der alten Gestalt wieder aufzubauen. Es waren sämtliche städtische Feuerwehren und die Feuerwehr aus dem nahen Ottobeuren an den Löschmaßnahmen beteiligt.

Das Haus bestand aus sechs zu sechs Achsen und hatte zwei Stockwerke und ein Satteldach. Die Fassade war klassizistisch gestaltet. Im dritten Ostjoch des Hauses befand sich ein großes, rundbogiges Tor als ehemaliger Zugang für die Pferde. Im ersten Stockwerk hatte das Gebäude sechs Fenster, der Giebel war zweifach geschweift. Im zweiten Stock besaß es drei, im dritten Stock ein Fenster. Über dem Fenster des dritten Stocks befand sich eine halbkreisförmige Öffnung. Eine Metallvase krönte den Giebel. An der Westseite des Hauses war ein Nasenschild angebracht. Der Keller, der vermutlich aus dem 12. Jahrhundert stammt, ist überwölbt.

Koordinaten:

Liam Fairhurst

Liam Fairhurst (26 February 1995 – 30 June 2009) was a British charity fundraiser who had been diagnosed with synovial sarcoma. He was diagnosed with the disease in his leg in 2005, and large portions of his leg muscles had to be removed. The cancer eventually spread to his lungs. By the time of his death, he had collected almost £320,000, mainly for children’s cancer charity CLIC Sargent.

Born in Soham, Cambridgeshire, Fairhurst began charity work after his friend, Jack Wilkinson, died of cancer in 2006, aged 12. He decided to raise money for a holiday home in Yorkshire for families living with childhood cancer. Barely able to walk, he began fundraising with a one-mile swim in 2006.

Fairhurst’s courage impressed and inspired people such as Prime Minister Gordon Brown and his wife Sarah Brown. After Fairhurst’s death, Brown said: „Liam was a courageous young man who showed immense bravery in the face of his illness. It was a privilege to meet him – his dedication as a fundraiser was an encouragement to us all and I am very proud of what Liam achieved. His courage will be a continuing inspiration to all those that knew him. My thoughts are with his family at this sad time.“

Nayagarh

Nayagarh (ନୟାଗଡ଼) is a town and a notified area council (NAC) in Nayagarh district in the Indian state of Odisha. It is the headquarters of Nayagarh district.

Nayagarh is located at . It has an average elevation of 178 metres (583 feet). This town has Rukhi mountain to the south and Balaram mountain to the north. These mountains mitigated the effects of the 1999 Odisha cyclone on Nayagarh. New Jagannath Sadak connects Nayagarh with the holy city of Puri.

As of 2011 India census, Nayagarh town had a population of 17,030, of which male and female were 9000 and 8030, respectively. There was a change of 11.30% in the population compared to the population as per 2001 in Nayagarh District. In the previous census of India 2001, Nayagarh District recorded an increase of 10.46% in its population compared to that of 1991.

The total area of Nayagarh district is about 3,890 km2. There are a total of about 1700 villages in Nayagarh district.

Average literacy rate of the population of Nayagarh in 2011 was 79.17 compared to 70.52 of 2001. If things are looked out at genderwise, male and female literacy rates were 86.63 and 71.08, respectively. For 2001 census, same figures stood at 82.66 and 57.64 in Nayagarh District. Total literates in Nayagarh District were 681,522, of which male and female were 387,632 and 293,890, respectively. In 2001, the total population of literates in Nayagarh District was 529,840.

With regard to sex ratio in Nayagarh, it stood at 916 females per 1000 males compared to 2001 census figure of 938. The average national female sex ratio in India is 940 per 1000 males as per latest reports of Census 2011 Directorate.

In census enumeration, data regarding child under 0–6 years age were also collected for all districts including Nayagarh. There were total 101,337 children under the age of 0-6 against 113,180 of 2001 census. Of total 101,337, male and female were 54,759 and 46,578, respectively. Child sex ratio as per census 2011 was 851 compared to 904 of census 2001. In 2011, children under 6 formed 10.53% of Nayagarh District compared to 13.09% of 2001. There was a net change of −2.56% in this compared to previous census of India.

Nayagarh District population constituted 2.29% of the total population of Odisha as per 2001 census.

The history of the foundation of Nayagarh State in the thirteenth century is an important chapter in the political history of Odisha. Suryamani of Baghela dynasty came to Puri on a pilgrimage from „Rewa“ of Madhya Pradesh and established his kingdom at Nayagarh. On the way to Puri, both Suryamani and his brother Chandramani took rest at night at Gunanati. The area was full of tigers and at night a tiger attacked him. Both the brothers fought the tiger and killed it. The local people praised the brave brothers and elected Suryamani as their leader. Suryamani gradually built his fort at Gunanati and married a Mali (a cast known as worshiper of lord Shiv) girl. After the death of his first wife, he again married a Kshatriya girl. From there, he then attacked Haripur and Ralaba. Ralaba was a very beautiful place. While sleeping, a tiger attacked him at Ralaba; he again fought and killed it. At that moment, he saw a lady with an empty pot passed by to fetch water. Astonishingly, she returned with a little boy. Immediately, Suryamani obstructed the way of that lady and wanted to know about the mystery. The lady told she was Bouri Thakurani (a local worshiped goddess) and the tiger that the king killed was the boy. She advised Suryamani to kill her and worship her as his deity. From that date, Suryamani worshiped „Bauri Thakurani“ at Ralaba and built his fort there and adopted Tiger Head as a state symbol.

Ninth king of this dynasty „Baghel Singh“ (1480–1510) came on a hunting to a place in between Rukshi and Balaram mountains and saw a wonderful sight that a rabbit pressed down a dog there. After seeing this valourous act by the prey (rabbit) on the predator, he selected and shifted his capital to this place. As per his name, Nayagarh is also known as „Baghua Nayagarh“ (valourous Nayagarh). The place where such an event occurred is now known as „KukurTasara“ (‚kukur‘ means ‚dog‘ and ‚tasara‘ means a large piece of stone in Odia, where the pressing of the dog by the rabbit had occurred and hence the name).

12th King of Nayagarh was Raghunath Sing (1565–1595) who was highly powerful. During this time, Muslims had already captured Odisha and the atmosphere of the coastal Odisha was fully indiscipline. The last independent king Mukunda Dev (1565) was defeated in Gohritikira and died. By taking the advantages of the political situations of coastal Odisha, Raghunath Singh attacked Ranapur and captured Odagaon, Sarankul and Baunsiapara area from Ranapur estate and dispossessed Nayagarh-Daspalla border area from the King of Boudh and Sunamuhin area of Odgaon from the King of Ghumusar. He also captured a portion from Banpur. Before death, Ragunath Singh divided his estate between his three sons. Harihar Singh was in possession of Nayagarh and Jadunath Singh got four Khandagrams (large area of land) which was known as Khandapada later. Gadadhar Singh was the son of Harihar Singh. When he was engaged in a fight with Ranpur estate, the king of Ghumusar attacked Nayagarh. Pindik Patsahani of village Sunalati with 150 soldiers fought the great army of Ghumusar and defeated him. But, in subsequent war, he was captured by the enemy and sacrificed his life. Gadadhar Sing’s daughter married the great poet Upendra Bhanja of Ghumusar who settled at Malisahi of Nayagarh estate after marriage. When British captured Odisha, Binayak Singh Mandhata was the King of Nayagarh and the great Jadumani Mahapatra was his court poet.

There is an old adage which other districts people often ask a person from Nayagarh when somebody goes outside the Nayagarh state. This is as follows:

jebe kahibu bara gaon tera gadia (if you can say 12 village names ending in ‚gaon‘ and 13 villages names ending in ‚gadia‘, which are part of Nayagarh district)

tebe janiba tu Nayagarhia (then we will know that you are from Nayagarh)

The answer is—village ending in ‚gaon‘: Dihagaon, Duargaon, Deogaon, Balugaon, Natugaon, Khandugaon, Nuagaon, Odagaon, Khuntgaon, Batagaon, Rasanga, Pokasunga.

village ending in ‚gadia‘:

Benagadia, Rabigadia, Kainthgadia, Ghodagadia, Hinjalgadia, Dhundugadia, Muthagadia, Minagadia, Ranigadia, Baunsagadia, Kusumagadia, Madangadia, Todigadia

In 1961, the then SDO (subdivisional officer) of Nayagarh Sri Bhramarabar Jena took the initiative to establish a college. With generous charities of land from the endowments of Sri Gopinath Jew, Her Majesty the Queen of the erstwhile princely state of Nayagarh, the Forest Department; the then Eastern zone Command Base (now the Police Training School, Nayagarh) and numerous small-land owners, the college came into existence on a Sylvan surrounding at the foot of the Rukhi Range on 9 July 1961. To name a few who will be long remembered for their valuable contribution and active role towards the formation of Nayagarh College are Shri Akrura Mohapatra, Advocate; Shri Raghunath Mohapatra, renowned Agriculturist; Shri Narasingha Pattnaik, Advocate; Shri Raghunath Das, first NAC Chairman of Nayagarh and a social activist; Shri Achhutananda Mohanty, ExMLA, Nayagarah; Shri Rajkishore Pattnaik, Poet; Shri Rajkishore Pattnaik, Advocate; Shri Jaladhar Behera, Advocate; Shri Krishna Chandra Satpathy, Advocate; and Sri Benudhar Mohapatra, Agriculturist.

The infrastructure includes the massive two storied Academic Building that houses all the Arts, Commerce and Science departments and laboratories, office rooms for both the wings of N.C.C., N.S.S and Youth Red Cross. The Administrative Block includes Central office and Examination Section; the Library building houses Reading Room; three hostels (two Gents’ and one Girls’), 10 Staff Quarters and a spacious playground with 400 m track are the added attractions of the college. The Gents’ hostel has been named after the noted poet Kabi Jadumani, while the other has been named after the world famous astrophysicist Pathani Samant, the worthy son of Khandapada. The Women’s hostel has been named after the woman freedom fighter Malati Choudhury, the wife of the former chief minister and freedom fighter Nabakrushna Choudhuri. Besides its own water supply system on the Sprawling Campus, other amenities of the College include Open Air Auditorium, Canteen, Guest house, Health Centre, cycle shed, post office, and NCC Firing Range. The college library has a total stock of 35,139 books (undergraduate and higher secondary) including 16,309 reference books and 4,910 books in the Book Bank, subscription to 29 journals and periodicals, Reading Room facility for the teachers and the students, circulation facility, clipping facility, audio-visual facility and Internet access. The catalogueing system is fully computerised. The college came into University Grants Commission (UGC) fold in July 1964 under 2(f) and subsequently under 12 (B). Since then, the UGC has been providing adequate financial assistance for the promotion of academic activities as well as for the development of infrastructure. The college has recently been declared an Autonomous College by the UGC w.e.f. the session 2006-2007.

The college had its inception from 02-07-1981. Mr S.M. Soleman was the founder Secretary of the college. In the old building of Prajamandal Office in Nayagarh Town, it started imparting instruction in intermediate in arts (IA) level, being recognized by the Government of Orissa and affiliated to Utkal University. IA stage was converted to +2 stage in 1983–84 and +3 class in Arts started in 1988–89. The college got permanent recognition from Govt of Orissa and permanent affiliation of +3 courses by Utkal University.

From the 1991–92, the college started functioning with principal-cum-secretary and this practice is going on till date. Honours courses in Political Science, History, Education and Sanskrit were started in 1994–95 and English, Oriya and Economics Honours have started from 2010–11 with 16 seats each. The +2 Science Course has been started from 1999-2000 with due permission of Govt of Odisha. The development of the college is attributed to the donations received from the people of Nayagarh and Govt of Odisha. Further development of the college is due to the financial assistance of the UGC, State Govt and MP Fund. Almost 900 students prosecute their study in the college and more than 200 students are to reside in the hostel within the college campus. The facility of Computer Education is also available in this college. With the noble endeavour of President Girls Brigade (GB), the science stream at +2 level, increases of seats and honours provisions in degree stage (+3 level) have been introduced in the institution.

Brajendra High School is the oldest high school in Nayagarh. It is named after Raja Brajendra Kishore Singh Mandhata, Raja Saheb of Nayagarh (erstwhile king) of Nayagarh. The school is situated near the Government Hospital and beside the Head Post Office. Initially it was a boys high school but later it became a co-ed school. Now it is taken care by Nayagarh Block. Hostels for students are also built. Brajendra High School is located in the road side of NH – 224 or in front of Notified Area Council (NAC), Nayagarh.

It is one of the newest schools in Nayagarh town, established in 1997. Presently it is one of the most eminent DAV schools in Nayagarh. The schools is well known for quality education, highly qualified teaching staff, and achievement by its stduents in district level. Present principal is Mrs. Sabita Panda and Mr. Abhaya Kumar Pradhan is the school Manager.

This grand educational institute was established on 11 May 1991 at New Rajabati road. An advanced and quintessential school with vedic science as base and scientific knowledge as approach has set a benchmark in education in Nayagarh. It was initially started with the greatest efforts from Dr Gyanendra Mahapatra Vice-Chancellor,Maharishi Ved Vigyan Viswa Vidyapeeth and Surajit Praharaj, State Co-Ordinator Maharishi Vidya Mandir,Orrisa,Mr.Monoranjan Mahapatra,Advocate,Nayagarh, Mr. Rajkishore Dalei and some other staff. Ms. Annapurna Ray is the present principal of the school. It follows CBSE curriculum.

The first batch passed out in 2000. At that time students have to appear exam from Maharishi Vidya Mandir, Sahadevkunta, Balasore. Later the center of exam shifted to Bhubaneswar. Now the center of exam is shifted to Nayagarh.

Initially started in New Rajabati lane, the school was later shifted to its own building in 2004, which is currently located in the Muktapur Road, i.e. while moving in NH 224, Lord Jagannath Temple comes on the way. From there a road goes towards left. Moving one kilometer in that road Maharishi Vidya Mandir comes on the right.

It is a specialised school for vedic science. Visual aid is also given to students to understand the subject perfectly.

This is one of the oldest schools of Nayagarh. This high school is located at old town road and the school has a strength of more than 500 students and 20 teachers and offers classes from VI to X. Before 2005, this school was running under N.A.C.(Notified Area Council); from 2006, it is directly functioning under the Govt of Odisha. Sri Gangadhara Maharana was the first Headmaster of this school.

It is one of the oldest schools among private high schools of Nayagarh town and was established in 1994 with some 50 students and 8 teachers. Now it is the leading private institution with about 1200 plus students and the district headquarters for a number of branches in different blocks all over the district. The school is now situated near Nabhaghanpur with its new building at a 5-min distance from the town. The school is well known for quality education blended with Indian values, and constantly achieves very good result in the high school board exam in the district level. The medium of teaching is Odia.

Madhukesh Bidyapitha is a government high school which is located in Nagamundali village, 10 km south-east from Nayagarh town (on Nayagarh-Godipada road). It is an old high school in the district. The school has taken a great role in the development of education system in some rural areas of Nayagarh district. Not only the students are from the Nagamundali village itself, but also there are students from the nearby villages (i.e. Gamein, Binjhagiri, Kalika Prasad, Begunia Patana, Chindera, Adachera, Manapura) coming to study in this school. Although in a rural area, the school has good staff and students. Nowadays, its alumni have owned good positions i.e. doctors, engineers,scientists etc., in various laevels. It is situated on the foot of Gamein and Binjhagiri hills and has a beautiful campus including academic building, garden and playground.

Solapata High School is located at village Solapata, 6 km away on the road to Sarankul. It was established in 1964. This is one of the oldest schools of Nayagarh. Another high school is located at Gobindapur (Gram Panchayat- Gadadhar Prasad, Block/Dist- Nayagarh). This school has a strength of more than 200 students and 12 teachers and offers classes from VIII to X. Sri Biswambar Acharya was the first Headmaster of this school. It was established by late Bhagirathi Satapathi in the year 1968.It is a noticible that Mr Bhagirathi Satapathi donates his property for the school.MRs. Bijayalaxmi Pattnaik is now in the post of headmaster.It is a computerised school and improved more in the recent years. Some other schools are there in Itamati, Dasapalla, Khandapara, Kantilo, Godipada, Sankhei, Sarankul, Odagaon, Chahali and Kajalaipalli. Although these are rural schools, they have produced thousands of scholarly teachers, scientists, engineers, other professionals and intellectuals working successfully in the country and abroad.

This Shiv temple is situated at Sharanakula, a small town towards Odagaon Block. Maha Shivaratri is the important festival which is being celebrated every year. People from all parts of Odisha (mainly south Odisha) come to this place during the festival.The deity popularly known as „Ladu Baba“ bestows blessing upon everyone. The temple is situated around 100 km from Bhubaneswar on the Nayagrah- Aska Road in Sharankul and 13 km away from Nayagarh town. The city is regarded as the golden merge of Hari (Vishnu) and Hara (Shiva). „Bolbam“ is a famous traditional culture here for which people across different parts of odisha visits the temple from their own towns by walking on bare foot and carrying a stick over their shoulder holding 2 pots of water from their town and finally put in the Ladukeshwar temple on the occasion of shivaratri. The history of Ladukeshwar temple says that a cowherd used to take couple of cows to the Bhandar mountain situated on top of Ladukeshwar temple now and one day he noticed that the cow automatically milks over a stone periodically everyday and one day when by mistake the cow put the leg on that stone, blood came out of the stone. To the very surprise, the cowherd told that story to village head and on that night one temple priest saw a dream of god speaking of establishing a temple over there. And the king agreed to it and established the temple. From that day onwards Ladukeshwar temple got established in Sharankul. In front of the temple, one monkey used to come for many days and sit at the exit of temple everyday and never ate anything offered by the public and died after few days, hence one small temple was built just outside the exit in the memory of that loving devoted monkey.The temple is now further restructured with more temples internally with further introduction of „Naba gunjar“, Maa laxmi temple, haraparbati temple and floating stone of magical Ramsetu times etc.The history is very old and teaches us the culture in every respect.

This temple is situated at Kantilo around 35 km from Nayagarh and 60 km distance from Bhubaneswar.It is believed that lord Jagannath is the secondary form of lord Nilamadhav, who was worshiped by the tribal head Biswabasu.

This temple is situated at Odagaon around 40 km distance from Nayagarh town. Lord Rama is worshiped there along with lord Laxman and goddess Sita.

This temple is situated in Nayagarh around 1 km distance from Nayagarh town.Goddess Dakshinakli is the prime deity of Nayagarh. It is said She was taken by a great tantrik of the royal family of Nayagarh king once on his way from Khandpara to Nayagarh. While the royal kin was coming through a mango field at night, the deity appeared before him and since he was a great tantrik, he imprisoned the devi (goddess) and asked her to come with him as an aid till he reaches Nayagarh as he was travelling alone. Goddess Dakshinakli came with the tantrik, but upon reaching Nayagarh when he asked Her now She can go, the goddess replied him as you have made me come here now give me shelter and I would not go back and even cursed him to be childless as She was the mother goddess and a son should not have done this even if he has great magical power. Since then the temple for Dakshin Kali was built on and the goddess has been worshipped.

It is a very beautiful temple which is situated at Balabhadrapur village under Malishahi police station.

This Shiv temple is situated at Dihagaon, a small village 5 km distance from Daspalla Town towards Gania Block. This is the only shiv temple in the Dashapalla area whose „Shiv Ling is a patali shiv ling (came from netherworld, i.e. deep earth, by itself)“ and has not been established by human beings. This Shiva Ling was discovered by a tribal couple while they were searching for their habitats.Kartik Poornima is the main fastival of Dihagaon Jaleswar Temple followed by Maha Shivaratri,Dola Purnima and Sitala Sasthi.

It is famous tourist attraction in Nayagarh district, which is situated on the bank of river Mahanadi in Sidhamula village. People from all over the state come here for picnics and to see the scenic beauty. Now there is a cottage and deer park installed near the picnic spot. Night staying is available in the cottage.

It is the deepest river gorge of Odisha in the river Mahanadi. Its length is about 16 km in between Angul and Dashapalla boundary. Gharial crocodile and many reptiles,aquatic birds and animals are found here.

The Satakosia wildlife sanctuary is a tiger reserve. It attracts the nature lovers to experience the Flora and Fauna of Dashapalla amidst deep dense forest with numerous trees, herbs and creepers. Tiger, elephant, deer, spotted deer, bison, hare, jackal, wolf, leopard, peacock, parrot, maina, etc., are common.

A medium Irrigation Project has been built on the river Kuanaria just 7 km away from Dashapalla town. It is the largest river dam of Nayagarh district and a very good picnic spot with a deer park. Irrigation I.B., Wildlife I.B. and RWSS I.B. are here for short stay of the visitors.

Budhabudhiani Dam 10 km from Odagaon town is a beautiful picnic place of Nayagarh District.

Mahaveer Khol, a small hill at the north of Dashapalla is believed to be the original place of God Mahaveer. Swapna Mahaveer is being worshipped here since 1983. It is a fine religious place as well as a very good spot for picnic and for visit. A 3-day-long Jajna is held here every year during Bisub Sankranti where thousands of people gather.

It is a fine place for rock trekking. Generally people gather here in the month of Kartik for a visit. It is believed that Bhim the 2nd Pandav was here for some days. So the grand rock bears the foot prints of Bhim and named as Bhimara.

Vimara Range is 35 km from Nayagarh town towards Daspalla. It is very attractive, scenic and is divided into three by large stones and was made not just by the rulers but also by the villagers.

Nayagarh is famous for the popular sweet dish Chhena poda, which means ‚burnt cheese‘ in Oriya. The best quality chhena poda is now available in Itamati and Machhipada (native places of Nayagarh). Pithas are enjoyed on traditional holidays, while savory pithas are more common at other times of the year. Natives of Nayagarh and in other regions like Daspalla, Madhyakhanda and Gholahandi prepare Manda pitha, Chakuli pitha, Poda pitha, Arisha Pitha, Kakra Pitha on different Hindu Festival.

Itamati only 6 km away from Nayagarh town is the main Business Centre of Nayagarh. All types of trading of Nayagarh start in Itamati. Nayagarh also developed a great business market nowadays with some new Shopping Malls and new shops. Since Nayagarh is present in between Angul, Cuttack, Aska, Berhampur, Koraput and Khurdha, Nayagarh also had a great business field. After completion of Sidhamala Dam Project in Kantilo over Mahanadi River, the distance from Nayagarh to Angul and Cuttack has been shortened, which ultimately increased business in Nayagarh. The National Highway 224 also goes through Nayagarh, which shortened the distance from Bhubaneswar to Bolangir. This also influenced trade in Nayagarh.

The agricultural lands of the district of Nayagarh are basically fit for cultivation of seasonal paddy, pulses like mung and black gram and sugarcane. There are hills and forests spread in the nearby areas of the town of Nayagarh as well as in the different parts of the district where herbal and forest products are available including natural medicinal plants.People cultivate groundnut, sesame, and other similar grams during the suitable times which are highly nutritious. The forest products also include saal and kendu leaves supporting life of the rural and tribal people.

The culture of Nayagarh is rural and based on the established traditions right from the ancient times. These are mostly related to the religious systems prevailing in the Hindu temples of Lord Shiva, Lord Rama,Lord Krishna, Lord Jagannath and the established deities of Hinduism. Every year, people observe Mahavishuva Sankranti (or Pana Sankranti also known as Haunuman Jayanti after performing the rituals of Danda, a traditional festival of lord Shiv and Goddess Kali when people keep fast and walk on the fire made of wood charcoals on the last day of the festival, with a great fervor. In addition, there are age-old traditions of Dola Yatra, Rama Navami and Ratha Yatra too. Nayagarh has unique contributions of Danda Yatra, Raam Leela,Duari Nata, Pala, Daskathia, and Samkirtan to the State. Even these days, the people take strain unitedly to stage drama on different occasions. In a village named Maniakagoda and even elsewhere in the locality, all cultural celebrations are equally enjoyed by both Hindus and Muslims.

BOJBP, Kesharpur, Dist-Nayagarh, Odisha is a people’s voluntary organization founded on 1 January 1978 and registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860 and it has also been registered under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act 1976 and Registered Under Income Tax -80G. It has been working in Nayagarh District for Forest Protection, Wild Life Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture. An area of 2.5 lakh acres of Forest has been protected in 750 villages through community Forest Management System. Eight women Bio-Farmers groups are organized besides health and sanitation activities like supply of low-cost sanitation latrines, holding of eye camp, dental camp and leprosy camp etc. It also promotes System of Rice Intensification, in 644 acres of land in 56 villages in 5 Blocks of Nayagarh District. It established Seed Bank, Seedling Bank and Research and Information centre on Sustainable Agriculture.

BOJBP is a grassroot organization working for the people feeling the need of the operational area. The organization has started the project “Upscaling SRI in Odisha” since 2008. Including six grassroot-level organizations of different blocks, BOJBP has been promoting System of Rice Intensification (SRI) which is a pole star for the marginal and small farmers to enhance production. During this reporting period (April 9-March 10) sub-circle meeting of the farmers, orientation of staff for skill development, training to farmers on SRI and sustainable agriculture, training to farmers on preparation and use of vermicompost and bio-pesticides, circle meeting of farmers, training to farm labourers, training to women on sustainable agriculture, training to key trainers, block- and district-level meeting of SRI farmers to strengthen farmers federation were some of the key activities undertaken. Besides that, 138 soil samples have been tested in this office after getting training on soil testing.

Objectives

Its objectives are diverse. They include:

Sambhav is an NGO working for Biodiversity, Organic Farming, and Rural Sanitation. It was established in 1989, March 8, on Women’s Day. The organizer of this NGO is Sabarmathi. She took the barren land of 90 acres in the hills and repaired it for 11 long years like a mother. Now after 22 years, it is a good land, giving too many domestic seeds.

Nayagarh has a prominent place in the history of Odia literature, especially in Odia poetry. Many of the great Odia poets are from Nayagarh. Kabi samrat Upendra Bhanj famous for Baidehisha Bilas and others who throughout his poetic career lived in Nayagarh and had the boon of Lord Sriram from the temple of Deuli village in Nayagarh, Utkala Ghanta Jadumani Mohapatra, famous for Raghab Bilas and Prabandha Purnachandra, etc., Kabisurya Sadananda Brahma who is the guru (teacher) of gaudiya kabi Abhimanyu Samant Singhar, Banigourab Kabi Biswanath Champati who was a great poet, tantrik and astrologer. Above all, the great Samant Chandra Sekhar (popularly known as Pathani Samant) of Khandapara was a great poet whose Sidhant Darpan stands as a witness, a great work of Sanskrit literature written in Odia script on astrological treaties, which stands as a masterpiece of astrological research in world literature. Jagu Rautray was the army general of the king of Nayagarh who defeated Kujanga Sandha a great fighter of Kujang in Odisha. Famous sankirtan gayaks Anand Nayak (titled niankhunta—burning rod, village-Notar), Harihar Nayak (vil.-Phasipada), Udayanath Prusty (vil. Godipada), etc., are a few to mention. Arjun Barik (vil.- Badadesh Haripur) is also a well-known poet of Nayagarh.

The current MLA is the State Panchayatiraj & Law Minister, Government of Odisha, Arun Kumar Sahoo of Biju Janta Dal (BJD), who won the seat for the third term in State elections in 2014. Previous MLAs from this seat were Arun Kumar Sahoo (2004–2009), Bhagabat Behera who won this seat representing BJD in 2000, representing JD in 1990, representing JNP in 1985 and 1977, Sitakanta Mishra of INC in 1995, and Bansidhar Sahoo of INC(I) in 1980.

The print media of Nayagarh District are Nayagarh Darpan, Sambad Parampara, Graharaj,Baghua Barta.Among all Nayagarh Darpan is largely circulated fortnightly News Paper in Nayagarh District.

Nayagarh was a part of Bhubaneswar (Lok Sabha constituency). And after delimitation it is now part of Puri loksabha constituency from 2009.

Liste der Baudenkmale in Ricklingen (Stadtbezirk)

Die Liste der Baudenkmale in Ricklingen enthält die Baudenkmale des hannoverschen Stadtbezirks Ricklingen mit den Stadtteilen Bornum, Mühlenberg, Oberricklingen, Ricklingen und Wettbergen. Die Einträge in dieser Liste basieren überwiegend auf einer Liste des Amtes für Denkmalschutz aus dem Jahr 1985 und sind hinsichtlich ihrer Aktualität im Einzelfall zu überprüfen.

Kapelle, Pfarrhaus und ehemalige Pfarrscheune

Ahlem-Badenstedt-Davenstedt | Bothfeld-Vahrenheide | Buchholz-Kleefeld | Döhren-Wülfel | Herrenhausen-Stöcken | Kirchrode-Bemerode-Wülferode | Linden-Limmer | Misburg-Anderten | Stadtbezirk Mitte mit Calenberger Neustadt, Mitte, Oststadt und Zoo | Nord | Ricklingen | Südstadt-Bult | Vahrenwald-List

Canis lupus nubilus

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations du projet zoologie.

Louve, Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan

Sous-espèce

Canis lupus nubilus
Say, 1823

Répartition géographique

En bleu, l’aire de répartition du loup des plaines

Le Loup des plaines[réf. souhaitée] (Canis lupus nubilus) ou loup des bisons[réf. souhaitée] est une sous-espèce de loup de l’espèce Canis lupus. Son aire de répartition se situe l’est du Canada et à l’ouest de la région des Grands Lacs aux États-Unis.

Le loup des plaines mesure de 135 cm à 190 cm de long en comptant la queue. Le mâle adulte pèse entre 35 kg et 50 kg et la femelle adulte pèse entre 30 kg et 40 kg.

Son pelage est bien souvent un mélange de gris, de crème, de roux, de marron et de noir.

Avant le loup des plaines était présent dans une grande partie des États-Unis et du Canada. Actuellement il est présent dans l’est du Canada et est à nouveau présent dans certaines parties des États-Unis. Un recensement de 2004, dénombre près de 3 700 individus aux États-Unis répartis dans les États du Michigan, du Wisconsin et du Minnesota.

L’apparence du Loup gris présente une grande variabilité selon leur région d’origine. De nombreuses sous-espèces ont été décrites sur la base de quelques individus, sans prendre en compte la variabilité phénotypique naturelle de l’espèce. Ainsi, Edward Alphonso Goldman (en) décrit 24 sous-espèces américaines différentes en 1944.

Les recherches actuelles sont fondées sur des critères multifactoriels tels que la morphologie, la paléontologie, le comportement et les analyses génétiques. Cette réorientation de la description des sous-espèces a conduit à réduire considérablement le nombre de sous-espèces en considérant qu’il s’agit dans la majorité des cas d’adaptations locales de l’espèce Canis lupus.

En 1983, Nowak propose de réduire les loups d’Amérique à cinq sous-espèces : Canis lupus occidentalis, arctos, baileyi, nubilus et lycaon Son argumentation se développe autour de la séparation géographique en Amérique du Nord de cinq populations de loups au cours de la glaciation du Pléistocène, isolation durable qui aurait permis la formation des différentes formes. Les cinq formes de loups sont par la suite confirmées par des études génétiques, bien que la sous-espèce Canis lupus lycaon soit à présent reconnue comme une espèce, le Loup du parc d’Algonquin.

Canis lupus nubilus regroupe les anciennes sous-espèces suivantes :

Selon MSW :

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :