Northern Ireland Historical Institutional Abuse Inquiry

The 2014-2016 Northern Ireland Historical Institutional Abuse Inquiry, often referred to as the HIA Inquiry, is the largest inquiry into historical institutional sexual and physical abuse of children in UK legal history. Its remit covers institutions in Northern Ireland that provided residential care for children from 1922 to 1995, but excludes most church-run schools. The Inquiry was set up in response to the Inquiry into Historical Institutional Abuse Act (Northern Ireland) 2013. Following a request to extend its timescale, the report that the Inquiry is required to publish must be delivered to the First Minister and deputy First Minister (who will have no powers to change it) by 18 January 2017. Preliminary estimate of the cost was about £15m, with 37 people working on the enquiry according to its Frequently Asked Questions in July 2016. There are provisions for witness support. The Inquiry has statutory powers to compel witnesses living in Northern Ireland to appear before it and evidence held in Northern Ireland to be given to it; to take evidence under oath; and to be held in public except where necessary to protect individuals‘ privacy. Inquiry Rule 14(3) does not allow any explicit or significant criticism of a person unless the chairperson has sent them a warning letter, with a reasonable opportunity to respond.

Victims and survivors are represented by the Inquiry’s legal team at hearings; other witness may have their own legal representatives. Only the Inquiry legal team questions witnesses, and victims and survivors will not normally be cross examined by anyone else except in extremely unusual cases.

The Inquiry concluded its hearings on 8 July 2016, and continued to draft its report.

The Inquiry said that it would investigate the following Institutions, but that it might later decide to investigate others:

The inquiry covers residential care, but specifically does not cover other cases of clerical abuse, or most church-run schools

The Inquiry’s hearings are held in the former Banbridge courthouse; the opening hearing was held on 13 January 2014, with open oral testimony to finish in June 2015[needs update], and with the inquiry team reporting to the Executive by the start of 2016[needs update]. Hearings are divided into modules:

Evidence called and transcripts are available on the HIA Web site.

The Inquiry examined allegations relating to the former Kincora Boys‘ Home from 31 May to 9 July 2016, including claims that there was a paedophile ring at the home with links to the intelligence services; Northern Ireland Secretary Theresa Villiers said that all state agencies would co-operate with the inquiry.

Famille de Fruence

La famille de Fruence est une ancienne famille noble éteinte au XVe siècle.

Le premier membre cité de la famille est Liefredus en 1095.

La famille possède la seigneurie de Fruence jusqu’en 1296.

L’évêque de Sion a inféodé à la famille de Fruence le quart du domaine de Vassin, soit des terres à La Tour-de-Peilz.

Rodolphe de Fruence est cité comme chanoine, chantre et chancelier épiscopal.

La famille est éteinte depuis le XVe siècle.

La famille est vassale des seigneurs de Blonay dans la seconde moitié du XIIe siècle. En 1244, la famille prête hommage à Pierre de Savoie.

Document utilisé pour la rédaction de l’article : document utilisé comme source pour la rédaction de cet article.

Falicon

Falicon ist eine französische Gemeinde im Département Alpes-Maritimes in der Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur. Sie gehört administrativ zum Arrondissement Nizza, zum Kanton Tourrette-Levens und zur Métropole Nice Côte d’Azur. Die Bewohner sind die Faliconnais.

Die angrenzenden Gemeinden sind Tourrette-Levens im Nordosten, Saint-André-de-la-Roche im Osten, Nizza im Süden und im Westen und Aspremont im Nordwesten.

Falicon ist durch Gemeindepartnerschaften verbunden mit Merchweiler im Saarland (seit 1987) und mit Castellino Tanaro in der italienischen Region Piemont (seit 2004).

Die Mairie

Pyramide von Falicon

Porte Saint-François

Kirche „Église de la Nativité-de-la-Sainte-Vierge“

Kapelle Sainte-Croix des Pénitents blancs

Ascros | Aspremont | Auvare | Bairols | Beaulieu-sur-Mer | Beausoleil | Belvédère | Bendejun | Berre-les-Alpes | Beuil | Blausasc | Bonson | Breil-sur-Roya | Cantaron | Cap-d’Ail | Castagniers | Castellar | Castillon | Châteauneuf-Villevieille | Châteauneuf-d’Entraunes | Clans | Coaraze | Colomars | Contes | Cuébris | Daluis | Drap | Duranus | Entraunes | Èze | Falicon | Fontan | Gilette | Gorbio | Guillaumes | Ilonse | Isola | L’Escarène | La Bollène-Vésubie | La Brigue | La Croix-sur-Roudoule | La Penne | La Roquette-sur-Var | La Tour | La Trinité | La Turbie | Lantosque | Levens | Lieuche | Lucéram | Malaussène | Marie | Massoins | Menton | Moulinet | Nizza | Peille | Peillon | Pierlas | Pierrefeu | Puget-Rostang | Puget-Théniers | Péone | Revest-les-Roches | Rigaud | Rimplas | Roquebillière | Roquebrune-Cap-Martin | Roquesteron | Roubion | Roure | Saint-André-de-la-Roche | Saint-Antonin | Saint-Blaise | Saint-Dalmas-le-Selvage | Saint-Étienne-de-Tinée | Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat | Saint-Léger | Saint-Martin-d’Entraunes | Saint-Martin-du-Var | Saint-Martin-Vésubie | Saint-Sauveur-sur-Tinée | Sainte-Agnès | Saorge | Sauze | Sigale | Sospel | Tende | Thiéry | Toudon | Touët-de-l’Escarène | Touët-sur-Var | Tourette-du-Château | Tournefort | Tourrette-Levens | Utelle | Valdeblore | Venanson | Villars-sur-Var | Villefranche-sur-Mer | Villeneuve-d’Entraunes

AIDAaura

AIDAaura auf der Elbe

1 × Wärtsilä 6L38B, kW/4350
1 × Wärtsilä 8L38B, kW/5800
2 × Wärtsilä 12V38b, je kW/8700

2 Bugstrahlruder je kW/1200
2 Heckstrahlruder je kW/700

Germanischer Lloyd

IMO 9221566

Die AIDAaura ist ein Kreuzfahrtschiff von Carnival Corporation & plc. Sie wird für Fahrten unter der speziell auf den deutschen Markt ausgerichteten Konzernmarke AIDA Cruises eingesetzt. Betrieben wird sie unter italienischer Flagge durch Costa Crociere in Genua.

Sie ist das dritte „Clubschiff“ der AIDA-Flotte und wurde als Schwesterschiff zur AIDAvita unter Baunummer 004 auf der deutschen Aker MTW Werft GmbH gebaut. Die Bestellung erfolgte am 29. September 1999. Die Übergabe an die britische P&O Princess Cruises, zu der die Marke AIDA gehörte, erfolgte am 4. April 2003. Die Taufe erfolgte am 12. April 2003. Taufpatin des Schiffes war das Model Heidi Klum.

Der Antrieb des Schiffes erfolgt dieselelektrisch. Die vier Hauptmotoren von Wärtsilä verfügen über unterschiedliche Leistungen. Zwei Motoren (Typ: 12V38B) haben eine Leistung von je 8.700 kW, zwei weitere Motoren (Typ: 8L38B bzw. 6L38B) haben eine Leistung von 5.800 kW bzw. 4.350 kW.

Bei den Fahrmotoren handelt es sich um zwei Elektromotoren des Herstellers ABB Oy Motors and Generators (Typ: AMZ 1600 YX 14) mit einer Leistung von je 9.400 kW. Die Fahrmotoren wirken auf zwei Festpropeller.

Das Schiff verfügt über 12 Decks. Die Seitenhöhe bis zum Hauptdeck beträgt 17,1 Meter, die Höhe über der Wasserlinie 45,2 Meter.

Das Schiff verfügt über mehrere KaMeWa-Querstrahlsteueranlagen, zwei mit einer Leistung von jeweils 1.200 kW im Bug und zwei mit einer Leistung von jeweils 700 kW im Heck.

An Bord befinden sich 633 Passagierkabinen, 62 davon mit Balkon. Für die Passagiere stehen u. a. drei Restaurants und fünf Bars zur Verfügung. Die Wellness- und Spa-Einrichtungen verfügen über eine Gesamtfläche von 1.100 m², die Sonnendecks über 3.450 m².

Im April 2013 wurde das Schiff in einer Werft in Triest leicht modernisiert. Es wurden Böden ersetzt, Sportgeräte erneuert sowie auf Deck 10 eine Aufenthaltsecke für Teenager und auf Deck 8 eine kleine Kunstgalerie eingerichtet.

Im Sommer 2016 fährt die AIDAaura aufgrund der kurzfristigen Umroutung der AIDAstella vom östlichen ins westliche Mittelmeer Touren in Nordeuropa von Kiel aus, darunter erstmals eine 21-tägige Reise nach Grönland. Im Winter 2016/2017 wird wie im Vorjahr ab Dubai die 14-tägige Route Orient-Indien befahren, im Sommer 2017 wird wie schon 2016 eine Umroutung vorgenommen, diesmal vom östlichen Mittelmeer ab Antalya ins westliche Mittelmeer ab Palma de Mallorca.

Im Dezember 2007 kam es nach einem zweiwöchigen Werftaufenthalt zu Antriebsproblemen während der Überführung aus der Werft in Genua nach Palma de Mallorca. Von dort aus sollte die AIDAaura eine Transatlantik-Reise in die Karibik antreten. Über die genaue Art des Schadens, vermutlich ein Antriebswellenschaden, wurde von AIDA Cruises keine Auskunft gegeben. Die Reise musste abgesagt werden und das Schiff zur Behebung des Schadens in die Werft nach Genua zurückkehren.

AIDAcara | AIDAvita | AIDAaura – Sphinx-Klasse: AIDAdiva | AIDAbella | AIDAluna | AIDAblu (II) | AIDAsol | AIDAmar | AIDAstella – Hyperion-Klasse: AIDAprima

AIDAblu (I)

Tocosh

Tocosh (also known as Togosh) is a traditional Quechua food prepared from fermented potato pulp (corn is less common). It is often prepared for celebration events and has a strong odor and flavor. Tocosh can be used as a natural antibiotic because penicillin is produced during the fermentation process. Medicinally it is used for the common cold, gastric ulcers, pneumonia, and altitude sickness among others. The Incas believed it was a gift from Inti for preservation of the body.

The fermentation process of creating tocosh was discovered by the Incas (or possibly one of the many tribes in their empire). A pool of water with a current is found or dug on the banks of a stream. The potatoes or corn are then placed in a mesh bag of grass, covered with stones, and left undisturbed for six to twelve months. The current flows through the stones to wash away bacteria during fermentation. Once fermentation has occurred, the tocosh is dried in the sun and stored for future use.

The most common preparation in the Huánuco region of Peru is to make a mazamorra or jelly-like dessert.

Stannard Township, Michigan

Stannard Township is a civil township of Ontonagon County, in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 833 at the 2000 census.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 125.1 square miles (324 km2), of which 125.1 square miles (324 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) (0.02%) is water.

The western portion of the township is drained by the Baltimore River and its tributaries. The middle and eastern portions are drained, respectively, by the middle and east branches of the Ontonagon River.

As of the census of 2000, there were 833 people, 364 households, and 232 families residing in the township. The population density was 6.7 per square mile (2.6/km²). There were 518 housing units at an average density of 4.1 per square mile (1.6/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 98.20% White, 0.12% African American, 0.84% Native American, and 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.60% of the population. 55.6% were of Finnish, 9.5% German and 7.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 364 households out of which 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.0% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.80.

In the township the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 22.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 114.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.2 males.

The median income for a household in the township was $24,706, and the median income for a family was $30,938. Males had a median income of $27,708 versus $19,519 for females. The per capita income for the township was $14,327. About 8.3% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over.

About Face (album)

About Face is the second solo studio album by the English singer-songwriter David Gilmour. It was originally released in March 1984, on the label Harvest in the UK, and Columbia in the US. Co-produced by Bob Ezrin and Gilmour, the album was recorded in 1983, in sessions that took place at Pathé Marconi Studio, in Boulogne-Billancourt, France. Two tracks, „All Lovers Are Deranged“ and the more radio-friendly „Love on the Air“, were co-written by Gilmour and his long-time friend Pete Townshend, the main songwriter for The Who (Gilmour composed the music and Townshend wrote the lyrics). The remainder of the tracks are credited solely to Gilmour. In May of the same year, fellow Pink Floyd member Roger Waters released his first official solo album The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking.

On release, the album was received favourably by the majority of music critics and went on to peak at #21 on UK Albums Chart, and reached #32 on US Billboard 200. Two singles were issued from About Face: „Blue Light“, and „Love on the Air“. The album’s first and leading single, „Blue Light“ peaked at #62 in the US, while its second single „Love on the Air“ failed to chart. The album was certified gold by the RIAA.

The album was re-released on 14 August 2006 on EMI in Europe as a digitally remastered CD. Legacy Recordings, and Columbia Records released the remastered CD in the US and Canada on 12 September 2006.

The album was recorded with engineer Andy Jackson at a time when Pink Floyd’s future was uncertain. It was mixed by James Guthrie at Mayfair Studios in London, England.

Some of the musicians working with Gilmour were drummer Jeff Porcaro, bass guitarist Pino Palladino, Deep Purple keyboardist Jon Lord, backing vocalists Roy Harper, and Sam Brown, orchestral arranger Michael Kamen (who had also worked on The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking), and keyboardist Steve Winwood.

[When] doing this album I wanted to make a really good record. I didn’t want to do it very quickly, and I wanted to get the best musicians in the world that I could get hold of to play with me, so I thought I’d just make a little list of all my favourite musicians, you know, best drummer, best bass player, best keyboard player, and I’ll work through the list to see who I can get. Jeff Porcaro was top of my drummers list, Pino Palladino was top of my bass players list, and Ian Kewley, or the Rev, as he’s known, he actually came and did the bulk of the Hammond and piano playing, and he was terrific. Steve Winwood was top of my keyboard playing list but he couldn’t do most of the album, but I got him to do a bit. He played Hammond organ on „Blue Light.“ I had a bit more time and was feeling a bit freer about things on this album… just more „accidents“ tend to occur.

[About Pete Townshend’s lyrics on About Face and Townshend’s and Gilmour’s works on their own solo records while being the force behind successful bands] „I think [that] Pete feels some restrictions on what he would like to do with the Who, as I guess we all feel restrictions within everything we attempt [to do], just because of the types of personalities and role you’ve created for yourself. I know he’s felt uncomfortable about certain things— things he could express in solo stuff. For me, the restriction was the scale of what Pink Floyd had become more than anything. It’s nice to get out and do something on a slightly different scale; go out and do theatres, which is not really a possibility with Pink Floyd until we get a lot less popular.“

When Roger Waters began production of the Pink Floyd album, The Final Cut, Gilmour claims, he requested Waters to wait another month for Gilmour to develop some musical ideas himself, but Waters felt he was „on a roll“, and already had plenty of material to complete the album, a very personal project about his father’s death in World War II, and the further victimisation of those who survived it. Waters, seeing Gilmour and Mason’s lack of interest in the concept, offered to make The Final Cut as a solo album, but Gilmour and Mason still wanted a Pink Floyd album, of any kind, to sell. „[T]hey know [that] songs don’t grow on trees,“ Waters told David Fricke of Rolling Stone magazine. „They wanted it to be a Floyd record.“

Gilmour was later interviewed by Texas-based DJ Redbeard, on the radio programme, In the Studio during which the focus was his 2006 third album On an Island. He commented on About Face saying that, „looking back on it, it has some great moments on there but the whole flavour of it is too ’80s for my current tastes.“

„Murder“, was an outcry by Gilmour about the senseless killing of John Lennon, a longtime musical peer and inspiration to him. Gilmour embellished the song with a solo fretless bassline (played by Pino Palladino), adding an edgy funk groove to the acoustic beginning of the song, leading to an instrumental bridge, where the song picks up in the speed of the beat with more electric instruments. Gilmour collaborated with Townshend on the songs „Love on the Air“ and „All Lovers Are Deranged“, as Gilmour recalled: „I sent him three songs and he sent back three sets of lyrics. Two of them suited me well. One didn’t. He did the two on About Face and he did the other one [‚White City Fighting‘] on his White City album.“ The lyrics for „Love on the Air“ were written in a day, after Gilmour had asked for Townshend’s help. „You Know I’m Right“, was written in a similar vein to Lennon’s „How Do You Sleep?“, and was a dig towards to Waters. „Cruise“ was about Ronald Reagan having cruise missiles stationed in Britain at the time.

The cover of the LP is a little wider than usual, approaching 12 1/2 inches. The inner sleeve bears lyrics and photographs of Gilmour, and exists in at least two variations. A sleeve for the UK Harvest edition has rounded corners and opens to the side; one for the USA Columbia edition has square corners and opens to the top, relative to the lyric text. Like the cover, the latter sleeve is wider than it is tall, and may not fit into the outer sleeve if turned 90 degrees. In one corner of both versions are printed the words „Fleudian slip,“ a play on the words „Freudian slip“ and „Pink Floyd.“

The album featured the single „Love on the Air“, with lyrics by Townshend, and the disco-style single „Blue Light“, later remixed by François Kevorkian; „Blue Light“ was released, backed with „Cruise“, on 13 February 1984, while „Love on the Air“, backed with „Let’s Get Metaphysical“ on 24 April. The album was released on 5 March in the UK, and on 6 March in the US (coincidentally on Gilmour’s 38th birthday). „All Lovers Are Deranged“ and „Murder“ were released as singles for North American rock radio; the former reaching #10 on Billboard‘s Mainstream Rock chart.

Writing for AllMusic, critic Tom Demalon wrote of the album „The songs on About Face‘ show a pop sensibility that Pink Floyd rarely was concerned with achieving.“ and he adds that „About Face is well-honed rock album that is riveting from beginning to end.“

All lyrics written by David Gilmour, except where noted; all music composed by David Gilmour.

Another piece of music written for the album was not used by Gilmour.

He asked Roy Harper and separately, Pete Townshend, to supply lyrics, but felt that those provided were not messages that he could relate to. Harper subsequently used the tune, with his lyrics, as „Hope“, on his 1985 album with Jimmy Page, Whatever Happened to Jugula?. Townshend used it with his lyrics as „White City Fighting“, which has a markedly faster tempo, on his 1985 album White City: A Novel, on which Gilmour plays.

The supporting tour for About Face, which lasted from March 31 to July 16, 1984, covering Europe and North America saw Gilmour perform the following songs:

Roy Harper and Nick Mason joined him at his shows at the Hammersmith Odeon on 28, 29 and 30 April 1984, which were filmed.

Album

Singles – Billboard (US)

University of London

The University of London is a collegiate research university located in London, England, consisting of 18 constituent colleges, nine research institutes and a number of central bodies.

The university is the second largest university by number of full-time students in the United Kingdom, with 161,270 campus-based students and over 50,000 distance learning students in the University of London International Programmes. The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London (UCL) (previously called London University) and King’s College London and „other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom“. The university moved to a federal structure in 1900.

For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the constituent colleges operate on an independent basis, with some recently obtaining the power to award their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university. The ten largest colleges of the university are UCL, King’s College London, Queen Mary, City, University of London (City), Birkbeck, the London School of Economics and Political Science, Royal Holloway, Goldsmiths, SOAS, and St George’s. The specialist colleges of the university include the London Business School, the Royal Veterinary College and Heythrop College, specialising in philosophy and theology. Imperial College London was formerly a member before leaving the university in 2007. City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016.

Many notable individuals have passed through the university, either as staff or students, including at least four monarchs, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 74 Nobel laureates, six Grammy winners, two Oscar winners and three Olympic gold medalists.

In post-nominals, the University of London is commonly abbreviated as Lond. or, more rarely, Londin., from the Latin Universitas Londiniensis, after its degree abbreviations.

University College London (UCL) was founded under the name London University in 1826 as a secular alternative to the religious universities of Oxford and Cambridge. In response to the theological controversy surrounding such educational establishment, King’s College London (KCL) was founded and was the first to be granted a royal charter (in 1829).

Yet to receive a royal charter, UCL in 1834 renewed its application for a royal charter as a university (originally applied for in 1830), which would grant it the power to confer degrees. In response to this, opposition to „exclusive“ rights grew among the London medical schools. The idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. and in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education. However, the blocking of a bill to open up Oxford and Cambridge degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests, particularly as the degrees of the new University of Durham were also to be closed to non-Anglicans.

In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL’s petition for a charter. Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, and a second „establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name“.

Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the university started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837. The death of William IV in June, however, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted „during our Royal will and pleasure“, meaning it was annulled by the king’s death. Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837, reincorporating the university. The university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to students from UCL and KCL.

The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was essentially an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts, laws and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King’s College, or any other school or college granted a royal warrant, effectively giving the government control of which colleges could affiliate to the university. Beyond the right to submit students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university.

In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, who had previously received their degrees without any ceremony. About 250 students graduated at this ceremony. The London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their „rich velvet facings“.

The list of affiliated colleges grew by 1858 to include over 50 institutions, including all other British universities. In that year, a new charter effectively abolished the affiliated colleges system by opening up the examinations to everyone whether they attended an affiliated college or not. This led the Earl of Kimberley, a member of the university’s senate, to tell the House of Lords in 1888 „that there were no Colleges affiliated to the University of London, though there were some many years ago“. The reforms of 1858 also incorporated the graduates of the university into a convocation, similar to those of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham, and authorised the granting of degrees in science, the first BSc being awarded in 1860.

The expanded role meant the university needed more space, particularly with the growing number of students at the provincial university colleges. Between 1867 and 1870 a new headquarters was built at 6 Burlington Gardens, providing the university with exam halls and offices.

In 1863, via a fourth charter, the university gained the right to grant degrees in surgery. This 1863 charter remains the authority under which the university is incorporated, although all its other provisions were abolished under the 1898 University of London Act.

In 1878, the university set another first when it became the first university in the UK to admit women to degrees, via the grant of a supplemental charter. Four female students obtained Bachelor of Arts degrees in 1880 and two obtained Bachelor of Science degrees in 1881, again the first in the country.

In the late 19th century, the university came under criticism for merely serving as a centre for the administration of tests, and there were calls for a „teaching university“ for London. UCL and KCL considered separating from the university to form a separate university, variously known as the Albert University, Gresham University and Westminster University. Following two royal commissions the University of London Act 1898 was passed, reforming the university and giving it a federal structure with responsibility for monitoring course content and academic standards within its institutions. This was implemented in 1900 with the approval of new statutes for the university.

Somerset House in 1836. The university had its offices here from 1837 to 1870.

King William IV, who granted the University of London its original royal charter in 1836.

An illustration of 6 Burlington Gardens, home to the university administration from 1870 to 1900.

The reforms initiated by the 1898 act came into force with the approval of the new federal statutes in 1900. Many of the colleges in London became schools of the university, including UCL, KCL, Bedford College, Royal Holloway and the London School of Economics. Regent’s Park College, which had affiliated in 1841, became an official divinity school of the university in 1901 (the new statutes having given London the right to award degrees in theology); Goldsmiths College joined in 1904; Imperial College was founded in 1907; Queen Mary College joined in 1915; the School of Oriental and African Studies was founded in 1916; and Birkbeck College, which was founded in 1823, joined in 1920.

The previous provision for colleges outside London was not abandoned on federation, instead London offered two routes to degrees: „internal“ degrees offered by schools of the university and „external“ degrees offered at other colleges (now the University of London International Programmes).

UCL and KCL, whose campaign for a teaching university in London had resulted in the university’s reconstitution as a federal institution, went even further than becoming schools of the university and were actually merged into it. UCL’s merger, under the 1905 University College London (Transfer) Act, happened in 1907. The charter of 1836 was surrendered and all of UCL’s property became the University of London’s. KCL followed in 1910 under the 1908 King’s College London (Transfer) Act. This was a slightly more complicated case, as the theological department of the college (founded in 1846) did not merge into the university but maintained a separate legal existence under KCL’s 1829 charter.

The expansion of the university’s role meant that the Burlington Garden premises were insufficient, and in March 1900 it moved to the Impetial Institute in South Kensington. However, its continued rapid expansion meant that it had outgrown its new premises by the 1920s, requiring yet another move. A large parcel of land in Bloomsbury near the British Museum was acquired from the Duke of Bedford and Charles Holden was appointed architect with the instruction to create a building „not to suggest a passing fashion inappropriate to buildings which will house an institution of so permanent a character as a University.“ This unusual remit may have been inspired by the fact that William Beveridge, having just become director of LSE, upon asking a taxi driver to take him to the University of London was met with the response „Oh, you mean the place near the Royal School of Needlework“. Holden responded by designing Senate House, the current headquarters of the university, and at the time of completion the second largest building in London.

During the Second World War, the colleges of the university (with the exception of Birkbeck) and their students left London for safer parts of the UK, while Senate House was used by the Ministry of Information, with its roof becoming an observation point for the Royal Observer Corps. Though the building was hit by bombs several times, it emerged from the war largely unscathed; rumour at the time had it that the reason the building had fared so well was that Adolf Hitler had planned to use it as his headquarters in London.

The latter half of the last century was less eventful. In 1948, Athlone Press was founded as the publishing house for the university, and sold to the Bemrose Corporation in 1979, subsequent to which it was acquired by Continuum publishing. However, the post-WWII period was mostly characterised by expansion and consolidation within the university, such as the acquisition as a constituent body of the Jesuit theological institution Heythrop College on its move from Oxfordshire in 1969.

The 1978 University of London Act saw the university defined as a federation of self-governing colleges, starting the process of decentralisation that would lead to a marked transference of academic and financial power in this period from the central authorities in Senate House to the individual colleges. In the same period, UCL and KCL regained their legal independence via acts of parliament and the issuing of new royal charters. UCL was reincorporate in 1977, while KCL’s new charter in 1980 reunited the main body of the college with the corporation formed in 1829. One of the largest shifts in power of this period came in 1993, when HEFCE switched from funding the University of London, which then allocated money to the colleges, to funding the colleges directly and them paying a contribution to the University.

There was also a tendency in the late 20th century for smaller colleges to be amalgamated into larger „super-colleges“. Some of the larger colleges (most notably UCL, KCL, LSE and Imperial) periodically put forward the possibility of their departure from the university, although no steps were taken to actually putting this into action until the early 21st century.

In 2002, Imperial College and UCL mooted the possibility of a merger, raising the question of the future of the University of London and the smaller colleges within it. Subsequently, considerable opposition from academic staff of both UCL and Imperial led to a rejection of the merger.

Despite this failure, the trend of decentralising power continued. A significant development in this process was the closing down of the Convocation of all the university’s alumni in October 2003; this recognised that individual college alumni associations were now increasingly the centre of focus for alumni. However, the university continued to grow even as it moved to a looser federation, and, in 2005, admitted the Central School of Speech and Drama.

On 9 December 2005, Imperial College became the second constituent body (after Regent’s Park College) to make a formal decision to leave the university. Its council announced that it was beginning negotiations to withdraw from the university in time for its own centenary celebrations, and in order to be able to award its own degrees. On 5 October 2006, the University of London accepted Imperial’s formal request to withdraw from it. Imperial became fully independent on 9 July 2007, as part of the celebrations of the college’s centenary.

The Times Higher Education Supplement announced in February 2007 that the London School of Economics, University College London and King’s College London all planned to start awarding their own degrees, rather than degrees from the federal University of London as they had done previously, from the start of the academic year starting in Autumn 2007. Although this plan to award their own degrees did not amount to a decision to leave the University of London, the THES suggested that this „rais[ed] new doubts about the future of the federal University of London“.[citation needed]

The School of Pharmacy, University of London, merged with UCL on 1 January 2012, becoming the UCL School of Pharmacy within the Faculty of Life Sciences. This was followed on 2 December 2014 by the Institute of Education also merging with UCL, becoming the UCL Institute of Education.

Since 2010, the university has been outsourcing support services such as cleaning and portering. This has prompted industrial action by the largely Latin American workforce under the „3Cosas“ campaign (the 3Cosas – 3 causes –being sick pay, holiday pay, and pensions for outsourced workers on parity with staff employed directly by the university). The 3Cosas campaigners were members of the UNISON trade union. However, documents leaked in 2014 revealed that UNISON representatives tried to counter the 3Cosas campaign in meetings with university management. The 3Cosas workers subsequently transferred to the Independent Workers Union of Great Britain.

Following good results in the Research Excellence Framework in December 2014, City University London said that they were exploring the possibility of joining the University of London. It was subsequently announced in July 2015 that City would join the University of London in August 2016. It will cease to be an independent university and become a college as „City, University of London“.

The university owns a considerable central London estate 12 hectares freehold land in Bloomsbury, near Russell Square tube station.

Some of the university’s colleges have their main buildings on the estate. The Bloomsbury Campus also contains eight Halls of Residence and Senate House, which houses the , the chancellor’s official residence and previously housed the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, now part of University College London (UCL) and housed in its own new building. Almost all of the School of Advanced Study is housed in Senate House and neighbouring Stewart House.

The university also owns many of the squares that formed part of the Bedford Estate, including Gordon Square, Tavistock Square, Torrington Square and Woburn Square, as well as several properties outside Bloomsbury, with many of the university’s colleges and institutes occupying their own estates across London:

The university also has several properties outside London, including a number of residential and catering units further afield and the premises of the University of London Institute in Paris, which offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in French and historical studies.

The ten largest institutions of the federal university, usually termed the colleges, are Birkbeck, Goldsmiths, King’s College London, the London Business School, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway, SOAS, City, LSE and UCL. Formerly a constituent college, Imperial College London left the University of London in 2007.

For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 18 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Legally speaking they are known as Recognised Bodies, with the authority to examine students and award them degrees of the university. Some colleges have the power to award their own degrees instead of those of the university; those which exercise that power include:

Most decisions affecting the constituent colleges and institutions of the University of London are made at the level of the colleges or institutions themselves. The University of London does retain its own decision-making structure, however, with the Collegiate Council and Board of Trustees, responsible for matters of academic policy. The Collegiate Council is made up of the Heads of Colleges of the university.

The 12 institutes, or Listed Bodies, within the University of London offer courses leading to degrees that are both examined and awarded by the University of London. Additionally, twelve universities in England, several in Canada and many in other Commonwealth countries (notably in East Africa) began life as associate colleges of the university offering such degrees. By the 1970s, almost all of these colleges had achieved independence from the University of London. An increasing number of overseas and UK-based academic institutes offer courses to support students registered for the University of London International Programmes’s diplomas and degrees and the Teaching Institutions Recognition Framework enables the recognition of these institutions.

The current constituent colleges of the University of London are as follows:

Some colleges and schools of the University of London have been amalgamated into larger colleges or left the University of London. These include:

Imperial College London

Royal Holloway, University of London

King’s College London

University College London

Queen Mary, University of London

Others

A number of major universities originated as university colleges teaching the degrees of (what is now) the University of London International Programmes.

A number of other colleges had degrees validated and awarded by the University of London.

Between 1946 and 1970, the university entered into ’schemes of special relation‘ with university colleges in the Commonwealth of Nations. These schemes encouraged the development of independent universities by offering a relationship with the University of London. University colleges in these countries were granted a Royal Charter. An Academic Board of the university college negotiated with the University of London over the entrance requirements for the admission of students, syllabuses, examination procedures and other academic matters. During the period of the special relationship, graduates of the colleges were awarded University of London degrees.

Some of the colleges which were in special relation are listed below, along with the year in which their special relation was established.

In 1970, the ‚Schemes of Special Relation‘ were phased out.

The University of London first received a grant of arms in April 1838. The arms depict a cross of St George upon which there is a Tudor rose surrounded by detailing and surmounted by a crown. Above all of this there is a blue field with an open book upon it.

The arms are described in the grant as:

The University of London had established a rudimentary code for academic dress by 1844. The university was the first to devise a system of academic dress based on faculty colours, an innovation that was subsequently followed by most other universities.

Since their being granted autonomous degree awarding powers, King’s College London, The London School of Economics and Political Science and University College London have each introduced their own form of academic dress. Queen Mary, University of London will, as of 2014, introduce its own form of academic dress to reflect its autonomous degree awarding powers. The remaining colleges of the university continue to use the University of London academic dress.

As of 2014/15, 142,990 students (approximately 5% of all UK students) attended one of the University of London’s affiliated schools. Additionally, over 50,000 students follow the University of London International Programmes.

The ULU building on Malet Street (close to Senate House) was home to the University of London Union, which acted as the student union for all University of London students alongside the individual college and institution unions. The building is now rebranded as ‚Student Central, London‘, offering full membership to current University of London students, and associate membership to students at other universities, and other groups. The union previously owned London Student, the largest student newspaper in Europe, which now runs as a digital news organisation

Though most sports teams are organised at the college level, ULU ran a number of sports clubs of its own, some of which (for example the basketball team) compete in BUCS leagues. The union also organised its own leagues for college teams to participate in. These leagues and sports clubs are supported by Friends of University of London Sport which aims to promote them.

In addition to these, ULU catered for sports not covered by the individual colleges through clubs such as the University of London Union Lifesaving Club, which helps students gain awards and learn new skills in lifesaving as well as sending teams to compete throughout the country in the BULSCA league.

The university’s ice hockey squad, the ULU Dragons, have been successful in the British Universities Ice Hockey Association Division 1 and Division 2. The Dragons have also previously competed in tournaments including professional teams and have come away with several gold and silver medals from these events.

ULU also organised a number of societies, ranging from Ballroom and Latin American Dance to Shaolin Kung Fu, and from the University of London Big Band to the Breakdancing Society. Affiliated to the university is the University of London Society of Change Ringers, a society for bellringers at all London universities.

The university runs the University of London Boat Club.

The university also has a representative football team, which dates back to 1913 and is a collection of the best players from the various colleges. The team plays games against sides such as Cambridge’s and Oxford’s ‚Blues‘ sides as well as the R.A.F, Navy and Army. Currently the team has use of both Motspur Park Athletics Stadium (Fulham F.C.’s training ground, and a former University of London property) and the Honourable Artillery Company’s grounds for training and home match purposes. Former players and managers of the team include Bobby Robson and Jimmy Hill.

University of London Orienteering Club is an umbrella club for all University of London orienteering groups. Members participate in orienteering events across the UK, and occasionally further afield. In 1997, the club sent a team to participate in the US championships in Colorado.

The University of London Symphony Orchestra (ULSO) is a leading student orchestra within the UK. It comprises approximately 70 – 100 students from the University of London annually and welcomes world-renowned conductors and soloists. ULSO dates back to 1955 is well known for performing some of the most challenging works in the repertoire. The orchestra has played in some of London’s foremost concert halls including Cadogan Hall, St. John’s Smith Square, Duke’s Hall and has been on tour in Hong Kong and Italy in recent years.

The university operates the following eight intercollegiate halls of residence, which accommodate students from most of its colleges and institutions:

The Garden Halls

A large number of famous individuals have passed through the University of London, either as staff or students, including at least 4 monarchs, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 74 Nobel laureates, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners and 3 Olympic gold medalists.

Staff and students of the university, past and present, have contributed to a number of important scientific advances, including the discovery of vaccines by Edward Jenner and Henry Gray (author of Gray’s Anatomy). Additional vital progress was made by University of London people in the following fields: the discovery of the structure of DNA (Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin); the invention of modern electronic computers (Tommy Flowers); the discovery of penicillin (Alexander Fleming and Ernest Chain); the development of X-Ray technology (William Henry Bragg and Charles Glover Barkla); discoveries on the mechanism of action of Interleukin 10 (Anne O’Garra); the formulation of the theory of electromagnetism (James Clerk Maxwell); the determination of the speed of light (Louis Essen); the development of antiseptics (Joseph Lister); the development of fibre optics (Charles K. Kao); and the invention of the telephone (Alexander Graham Bell). Notable political figures who have passed through the University of London include Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Romano Prodi, Junichiro Koizumi, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ramsay MacDonald, Desmond Tutu, Taro Aso, Walter Rodney, Nelson Mandela, John F. Kennedy, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi.

In the arts field the university has produced the novelists Malcolm Bradbury, G. K. Chesterton, H. G. Wells, Thomas Hardy, Arthur C. Clarke, J.G. Ballard and the poet John Keats. Many artists have been associated with the university, including Jonathan Myles-Lea, and several of the leading figures in the Young British Artists movement (including Ian Davenport, Tracey Emin and Damien Hirst). Outstanding musicians across a wide range include the conductor Sir Simon Rattle, the soprano Felicity Lott and both members of Gilbert and Sullivan to Mick Jagger, Elton John, Dido, and members of the bands Coldplay, Keane, Suede, The Velvet Underground, Blur, Iron Maiden, Placebo, The Libertines, Queen, and Hong Kong singer-actress Karen Mok.

The University of London has also played host to film directors (Christopher Nolan, Derek Jarman), philosophers (Karl Popper, Roger Scruton), explorers (David Livingstone), international academics (Sam Karunaratne), Riccarton High School Head of Commerce, Tom Neumann and leading businessmen (Michael Cowpland, George Soros).

The Chancellors of the University of London since its founding are as follows:

Wilhelm Heinrich von Lepel

Wilhelm Heinrich Ferdinand Karl Graf von Lepel (* 2. Mai 1755 in Nassenheide; † 20. Januar 1826 in Herrnhut, Oberlausitz) war königlich preußischer Gesandter am schwedischen Hof in Stockholm, Erb- und Lehnsherr auf Böck, Nassenheide, Plöwen, Blankensee, Frauenhagen und Kuhweide, Kunstsammler und Ritter des Johanniter- und des Roten Adlerordens.

Wilhelm von Lepel war der Sohn von Friedrich Wilhelm von Lepel, Rittergutsbesitzer auf Boeck, Blankensee und Nassenheide, und Amalie Gräfin Henckel von Donnersmarck (1720–1783).

Er blieb unverheiratet und kinderlos.

1768 kam Wilhelm im Alter von 13 Jahren an die Königliche Ritterakademie in Liegnitz in Schlesien. 1770 verlässt Wilhelm diese, um an den Universitäten Frankfurt/Oder, Halle und Leipzig die Rechte und Naturwissenschaften zu studieren. Nach Abschluss seines Studiums verweilte er mehrere Jahre im Schloss Rheinsberg bei Neuruppin am Junggesellenhof des Prinzen Heinrich von Preußen. Nach den Rheinsberger Jahren war Wilhelm in ähnlicher Funktion längere Zeit im Schloss Friedrichsfelde bei Berlin am Hof des Herrenmeisters des Johanniterordens, des Prinzen Ferdinand von Preußen, des jüngsten Bruders des Königs Friedrich und des Prinzen Heinrich. 1785 wurde Wilhelm Ritter des Johanniterordens und designierter Kommendator von Schivelbein und 1787 Königlich Preußischer Kammerherr.

In den Jahren 1787 bis 1790 war er außerordentlicher Gesandter Preußens am schwedischen Hof in Stockholm. Nach Ende der Gesandtenzeit in der schwedischen Hauptstadt verließ er den Staatsdienst, um in Nassenheide als Privatier zu leben. Nun konnte er eine seit Jahren geplante längere Reise in südliche Länder antreten. Nach zwei Jahren erlebnisreicher Bildungsreise kehrte er 1794 nach Pommern zurück und bereiste danach Westeuropa.

Im Sommer 1806 reiste Wilhelm in das böhmische Kurbad Karlsbad. Dort traf er Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, der sich vom 29. Juni bis 8. August 1806 ebenfalls in Karlsbad aufhielt. Dieser schrieb in einem Brief:

Eine überraschend angenehme Erscheinung war ein
Portefeuille von Kupferstichen, das Graf Lepel mit
sich führt und worin er die Aquisitionen aufbewahrt,
die er unterwegs macht. Die sieben Sacramente von
Poussin waren mir fast ganz neu, und eine
gute Partie Rembrandts habe ich auch mit viel
Vergnügen wiedergesehen.

– Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Auf seinem Gutsgelände legte Wilhelm im Bereich der ehemaligen Pferdekoppel einen Landschaftspark nach englischem Muster an. Die ungezwungenen, „natürlichen“ Landschaftsgärten entsprachen der damaligen Mode.

Seine Tätigkeit als bedeutender Kunstsammler, mit der er die Sammlerleidenschaft seines Vaters mit noch größerer Energie fortsetzte, verschaffte ihm die Ernennung zum auswärtigen Ehrenmitglied der Akademie der Künste.

Um seine umfangreichen Kunstsammlungen angemessen unterzubringen, ließ er das Nassenheider Herrenhaus zum Schloss umbauen. Fortan beherbergte der von ihm angebaute einstöckige Südflügel die zahlreichen Kunstgegenstände und die gräfliche Bibliothek mit den Werken über antike Kunst. Die von ihm gesammelten Kunstgegenstände brachte Wilhelm weitgehend aus Italien mit. Dazu gehören eine Menge Bronzestatuen, originale antike Stücke aus Marmor, zahlreiche Gipsabgüsse, darunter Köpfe von Jupiter und Juno. Diese Sammlungen machte er auch der interessierten Öffentlichkeit zugänglich.

Dann schenkte er in einem zwei Jahre vor seinem Tod erstellten Zusatz zum Testament (Codizill) seine bedeutende Sammlung von Kupferstichen aus der Hand bedeutender italienischer, englischer und französischer Meister dem preußischen Staat. Sie wurde dem Museum der Königlichen Akademie der Künste übergeben und später (1833) dem im Akademiegebäude eigens für die Aufnahme der Lepelschen Sammlungen eingerichteten Kupferstichkabinett Berlin zur Aufbewahrung überlassen. Unter Würdigung dieser Schenkung durch letztwillige Verfügung verlieh König Friedrich Wilhelm III. an Wilhelm Heinrich Graf von Lepel den Roten Adlerorden zweiter Klasse.

Im Frühjahr 1824, zwei Jahre vor seinem Tod, wurde Herrnhut in der Oberlausitz Wilhelms ständiger Wohnsitz. Es waren gesundheitliche Gründe, die ihn dazu bewegen, sich auf Dauer dort niederzulassen.

Er starb im Herrnhuter Gasthof, wo er ein Zimmer bezogen hatte.

Die gesetzlichen Lehnserben waren seine verwitweten Schwestern Ottilie Gräfin Henckel von Donnersmarck und Ulrike von Schmeling.

Нельсон, Джозеф С.

12 апреля 1937(1937-04-12)

Сан-Франциско, США

9 августа 2011(2011-08-09) (74 года)

Альберта, Канада

Канада

ихтиология

Альбертский университет

Университет Британской Колумбии, Университет Альберты

Джозеф С. Нельсон (англ. Joseph Schieser Nelson, 12 апреля 1937 — 9 августа 2011) — канадский зоолог, специализировавшийся в основном в изучении рыб.

В 1960 году Джозеф С. Нельсон получил степень бакалавра наук в университете Британской Колумбии, в 1962 году — степень магистра наук в университете Альберты и в 1965 году в университете Британской Колумбии после защиты своей диссертации на тему «Hybridization and isolating mechanisms in Catostomus commersonii and Catostomus macrocheilus (Pisces: Catostomidae)» он получил степень доктора философии (PhD). Джозеф С. Нельсон преподавал в университете Альберты, став там 1 июля 2002 года эмеритом. В свободное время он занимался карате, в котором получил чёрный пояс.

Основной областью его исследований были систематика и классификация рыб, пересмотр таксономии Trachinoidei и Psychrolutidae, таксономия колюшковых Culaea и Pungitius, а также биогеография рыб Альберты.

Нельсон был отмечен в 2000 году Американским обществом рыболовства, в 2002 году он был удостоен награды имени Роберта Х. Гиббса за выдающийся вклад в развитие ихтиологии. В 2006 году награждён медалью провинции Альберта[en]. Был избран президентом Американского общества ихтиологов и герпетологов.

Джозеф С. Нельсон является автором фундаментального труда «Рыбы мировой фауны» (Fishes of the World), вышедшем в четвёртом издании в 2006 году в издательстве John Wiley & Sons (ISBN 0-471-25031-7).

Виды, описанные Джозефом С. Нельсоном:

Виды, названные в честь Джозефа С. Нельсона: